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A longitudinal, prospective study was conducted on 3,020 aircraft employees to identify risk factors for reporting acute back pain at work. The premorbid data included individual physical, psychosocial, and workplace factors. During slightly more than 4 years of follow-up, 279 subjects reported back problems. Other than a history of current or recent back(More)
Herniated disc (HD), one of the major causes of low back pain, is often resolved spontaneously without surgical intervention. Resorption is associated with a marked increase in infiltrating macrophages, and the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) MMP-3 and MMP-7 have been implicated in this phenomenon. We developed a murine organ culture model in which intact(More)
BACKGROUND CONTEXT Many authors have evaluated the components responsible for ultimate pullout strength of pedicle screws. In these studies, one important variable has been the screw fixation. Because pedicle screw fixation has increased in popularity over recent years, so has the need for augmentation in difficult situations. Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA)(More)
As part of a program of research aimed at determining the role of mechanical forces in connective tissue differentiation, we have developed a model for investigating the effects of dynamic compressive loading on chondrocyte differentiation in vitro. In the current study, we examined the influence of cyclic compressive loading of chick limb bud mesenchymal(More)
Seventeen cadaveric human lumbar motion segments from eight spines were cyclically loaded in vitro under axial compression. Loading frequency and magnitude were chosen to simulate rigorous activity within an in vivo physiological level. The load magnitude was determined as a percentage of the ultimate compressive load, the latter estimated from the bone(More)
To evaluate the impact of back injuries on industry, the authors conducted a retrospective analysis of injuries occurring among a group of 31,200 employees of The Boeing Company, a large industrial manufacturer in Western Washington. They analyzed 4,645 injury claims (including 900 back injuries) made by 3,958 different employees. Two previous articles give(More)
Histomorphometric and biomechanical changes in bone resulting from hypogravity (simulated weightlessness) were examined in this study. Using a head-down hindlimb suspension model, three groups of six male rats underwent simulated weightlessness for periods of one, two and three weeks while a fourth recovery group was suspended for two weeks followed by two(More)
The compressive mechanical properties of human lumbar vertebral trabeculae were examined on the basis of anatomic origin, bone density, and intervertebral disc properties. Trabecular bone compressive strength and stiffness increased with increasing bone density, the latter proportional to strength and stiffness to the one-half power. Regional variations(More)
The in vitro viscoelastic "creep" behavior was examined in 18 cadaveric human lumbar motion segments subjected to static axial compressive loads. Axial deformation was followed for 30 min under constant applied load. Compressive material constants (moduli and viscosity coefficients) were then determined for each intervertebral disc using a linearization(More)
To evaluate the impact of back injury on industry, the authors conducted an extensive retrospective analysis of injuries among hourly employees of The Boeing Company, the largest industrial manufacturer in western Washington. The Boeing Company provided injury information on 31,200 employees for a 15-month period from July 1, 1979 to September 30, 1980.(More)