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We examined several factors related to the increase in susceptibility to excitotoxicity that occurs in embryonic forebrain neurons over time in culture. Neuronal cultures were resistant to a 5-min exposure to 100 microM glutamate/10 microM glycine at 5 days in vitro (DIV), but became vulnerable to the same stimulus by 14 DIV. We used the fluorescent(More)
Persistent symptoms of depression suggest the involvement of stable molecular adaptations in brain, which may be reflected at the level of chromatin remodeling. We find that chronic social defeat stress in mice causes a transient decrease, followed by a persistent increase, in levels of acetylated histone H3 in the nucleus accumbens, an important limbic(More)
Hormones and neurotransmitters have both short-term and long-term modulatory effects on the activity of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels. Although much is known about the signal transduction underlying short-term modulation, there is far less information on mechanisms that produce long-term effects. Here, the molecular basis of long-lasting suppression of Ca2+(More)
In the marine mollusc, Hermissenda crassicornis, Type B photoreceptors exhibit an IPSP to both presynaptic hair cell stimulation and microapplication of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) to the terminal branches. It was found that both the endogenous IPSP and the response to exogenously applied GABA were mediated to a large part by an outward current which(More)
The synaptic convergence of the eyes and the vestibular hair cells in the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda has been shown previously to mediate the learning of simple visual-vestibular associations. The neurotransmitter mediating this interaction between the visual and vestibular organs was characterized. HPLC chromatography, confirmed by mass spectroscopic(More)
To determine the number of L-channel populations responsible for producing the two components of whole-cell L-type Ca2+ channel current revealed by Bay K 8644 (Fass, D.M., and E.S. Levitan. 1996. J. Gen. Physiol. 108:1-11), L-type Ca2+ channel activity was recorded in cell-attached patches. Ensemble tail currents from most (six out of nine) single-channel(More)
Whole-cell L-type Ca2+ channel current was recorded in GH3 clonal rat pituitary cells using Ba2+ as a charge carrier. In the presence of the dihydropyridine agonist Bay K 8644, deactivation was best described by two exponential components with time constants of approximately 2 and approximately 8 ms when recorded at -40 mV. The slow component activated at(More)
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