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In response to environmental stress, cells induce a program of gene expression designed to remedy cellular damage or, alternatively, induce apoptosis. In this report, we explore the role of a family of protein kinases that phosphorylate eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) in coordinating stress gene responses. We find that expression of activating(More)
ATF3 (activating transcription factor 3) gene encodes a member of the ATF/CREB (cAMP-response-element-binding protein) family of transcription factors. Its expression is induced by a wide range of signals, including stress signals and signals that promote cell proliferation and motility. Thus the ATF3 gene can be characterized as an 'adaptive response' gene(More)
Immunohistochemical staining for p53 is used as a surrogate for mutational analysis in the diagnostic workup of carcinomas of multiple sites including ovarian cancers. Strong and diffuse immunoexpression of p53 is generally interpreted as likely indicating a TP53 gene mutation. The immunoprofile that correlates with wild-type TP53, however, is not as clear.(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a stress-inducible gene and encodes a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. However, the physiological significance of ATF3 induction by stress signals is not clear. In this report, we describe several lines of evidence supporting a role of ATF3 in stress-induced beta-cell apoptosis. First, ATF3(More)
ATF3 is a stress-inducible gene that encodes a member of the ATF/CREB family of transcription factors. Current literature indicates that ATF3 affects cell death and cell cycle progression. However, controversies exist, because it has been demonstrated to be a negative or positive regulator of these processes. We sought to study the roles of ATF3 in both(More)
Oedema factor, a calmodulin-activated adenylyl cyclase, is important in the pathogenesis of anthrax. Here we report the X-ray structures of oedema factor with and without bound calmodulin. Oedema factor shares no significant structural homology with mammalian adenylyl cyclases or other proteins. In the active site, 3'-deoxy-ATP and a single metal ion are(More)
Compelling evidence suggests that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptors play an important role in angiogenesis associated with tumor growth and metastasis. VEGF exerts its biologic activities through 2 transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors: the fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor (Flt-1, or VEGFR1) and kinase insert domain-containing(More)
Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is rapidly induced by diverse environmental insults including genotoxic stress. We report herein that its interaction with p53, enhanced by genotoxic stress, stabilizes the tumor suppressor thereby augmenting functions of the latter. Overexpression of ATF3 (but not a mutated ATF3 protein (Delta102-139) devoid of its(More)
RON is a member of the c-MET receptor tyrosine kinase family. Like c-MET, RON is expressed by a variety of epithelial-derived tumors and cancer cell lines and it is thought to play a functional role in tumorigenesis. To date, antagonists of RON activity have not been tested in vivo to validate RON as a potential cancer target. In this report, we used an(More)
The insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR) is overexpressed in many diverse tumor types and is a critical signaling molecule for tumor cell proliferation and survival. Therapeutic strategies targeting the IGF-IR may therefore be effective broad-spectrum anticancer agents. Through screening of a Fab phage display library, we have generated a fully(More)