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Discrimination of pulsed increments from decrements improves relative to detection when the adaptation level is decreased or stimulus duration is increased. Using Tanner's theory of recognition [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 882 (1956)], we show that the subject's internal decision variables corresponding to the increment and decrement stimuli also show increased(More)
Both foveae of light-adapted subjects were stimulated at the same time with monocularly presented lights of increasing or decreasing luminance. Combinations judged just detectable violated predictions of the energy summation and the probability summation hypotheses of binocular interaction. Rather, the results can be explained by independent central neural(More)
This article investigates the relation of vision and the effects of age on the maintenance of posture. This relationship in the elderly is explored within the context of visual depth illusions induced by repeating patterns that occur on escalator treads and elsewhere in the environment. Age does not appear to reduce the susceptibility of the elderly to(More)
Our modern rectilinear visual environment contains visual stimuli for which evolution has not had time to optimally shape visual processing. One such stimulus, periodic stripes, is known to lead to visual depth ambiguity. In this paper we show that postural instability, as measured by the variance of fore and aft sway, is increased by viewing such stimuli.(More)
The wallpaper illusion, first described over a century ago, can occur when a person with normal binocular vision views a pattern that is periodic in the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Escalator trends present such a pattern. Evidence is presented favoring the view that disorientation experienced by escalator riders is caused by this illusion.(More)
When retinal disparity exceeds the limits for fusion, the resulting images are perceived as diplopic. In a stereo test that allowed comparison of crossed and uncrossed disparity sensitivities, 74% of the subjects perceived convergent disparities more readily than divergent disparities. This asymmetric sensitivity to disparity did not appear to be related to(More)