Dan L. Stillman

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Phagocytosis is the predominant defense mechanism of invertebrates. Here we show that phagocytosis by echinoderm bladder amoebocytes and tunicate granular amoebocytes can be enhanced by invertebrate interleukin-1-like molecules. As little as 5 ng/ml of invertebrate interleukin-1 produced a significant stimulation of echinoderm and tunicate amoebocyte(More)
Pharyngeal explants and circulatory hemocytes from the tunicateStyela clava were cultured in a medium containing tunicate plasma, artificial seawater, RPMI 1640, and antibiotics. Pharnngeal tissue remained viable and proliferated for up to 72 d in vitro. Proliferative activity maintained the pool of hemocytes within explants and facilitated the migration of(More)
Proliferative responses of cells in tunicate pharyngeal explants to human interleukins and mitogenic lectins were tested. Increased tritiated-thymidine [( 3H]-TdR) uptake was detected among pharyngeal cells incubated with recombinant human interleukin-2 (IL-2), and phytohaemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). Responses to IL-2 were dose-dependent and affected(More)
Conditioned media and cell extracts from tunicate hemocytes that had been cultured with a variety of antigenic stimulants were tested for interleukin-1 (IL-1)-like activity. Media conditioned by hemocytes stimulated with zymosan significantly increased the proliferative and phagocytic activities of tunicate hemocytes. SDS-PAGE indicated that these(More)
A number of molecules were found to alter the motility of tunicate hemocytes. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) significantly enhanced cell mobility relative to non-stimulated controls. Responses to LPS were not directional and so represented chemokinesis. In contrast, checkerboard analyses indicated that two tunicate hemolymph proteins, tunIL1-alpha and(More)
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