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We demonstrate that an unlexicalized PCFG can parse much more accurately than previously shown, by making use of simple, linguistically motivated state splits, which break down false independence assumptions latent in a vanilla treebank grammar. Indeed, its performance of 86.36% (LP/LR F1) is better than that of early lexicalized PCFG models, and(More)
We present an automatic approach to tree annotation in which basic nonterminal symbols are alternately split and merged to maximize the likelihood of a training treebank. Starting with a simple Xbar grammar, we learn a new grammar whose nonterminals are subsymbols of the original nonterminals. In contrast with previous work, we are able to split various(More)
We present an unsupervised approach to symmetric word alignment in which two simple asymmetric models are trained jointly to maximize a combination of data likelihood and agreement between the models. Compared to the standard practice of intersecting predictions of independently-trained models, joint training provides a 32% reduction in AER. Moreover, a(More)
We present several improvements to unlexicalized parsing with hierarchically state-split PCFGs. First, we present a novel coarse-to-fine method in which a grammar’s own hierarchical projections are used for incremental pruning, including a method for efficiently computing projections of a grammar without a treebank. In our experiments, hierarchical pruning(More)
We present a generative model for the unsupervised learning of dependency structures. We also describe the multiplicative combination of this dependency model with a model of linear constituency. The product model outperforms both components on their respective evaluation metrics, giving the best published figures for unsupervised dependency parsing and(More)
We present a novel generative model for natural language tree structures in which semantic (lexical dependency) and syntactic (PCFG) structures are scored with separate models. This factorization provides conceptual simplicity, straightforward opportunities for separately improving the component models, and a level of performance comparable to similar,(More)
We present a perceptron-style discriminative approach to machine translation in which large feature sets can be exploited. Unlike discriminative reranking approaches, our system can take advantage of learned features in all stages of decoding. We first discuss several challenges to error-driven discriminative approaches. In particular, we explore different(More)
We present a new part-of-speech tagger that demonstrates the following ideas: (i) explicit use of both preceding and following tag contexts via a dependency network representation, (ii) broad use of lexical features, including jointly conditioning on multiple consecutive words, (iii) effective use of priors in conditional loglinear models, and (iv)(More)
We present an improved method for clustering in the presence of very limited supervisory information, given as pairwise instance constraints. By allowing instance-level constraints to have spacelevel inductive implications, we are able to successfully incorporate constraints for a wide range of data set types. Our method greatly improves on the previously(More)
We present a method for learning bilingual translation lexicons from monolingual corpora. Word types in each language are characterized by purely monolingual features, such as context counts and orthographic substrings. Translations are induced using a generative model based on canonical correlation analysis, which explains the monolingual lexicons in terms(More)