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A combination process of alkali impregnation and refining was used as a pretreatment to improve the production of fermentable sugar. The surface structures and crystallinities of wood samples were characterized to explain the relationships between the pretreatment action and enzymatic efficiency. After refining, the reducing sugar contents in hydrolyzates(More)
Prolonged or excessive β-adrenergic activation leads to cardiac myocyte loss and heart dysfunction; however, the underlying cellular mechanisms are still unclear. Therefore, we first confirmed the effect of isoproterenol (ISO), a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, on cardiac toxicity using TUNEL and caspase activity assays in cultured rat cardiomyocytes. ISO(More)
The root barks of Sophora japonica L., a plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine, were extracted with 70 % Me2CO. The antibacterial activity of the crude extracts and fractions from the subsequent purification was evaluated against two Gram-positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Klebsiella(More)
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