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Learning to perform a behavioural procedure as a well-ingrained habit requires extensive repetition of the behavioural sequence, and learning not to perform such behaviours is notoriously difficult. Yet regaining a habit can occur quickly, with even one or a few exposures to cues previously triggering the behaviour. To identify neural mechanisms that might(More)
Understanding how an animal's ability to learn relates to neural activity or is altered by lesions, different attentional states, pharmacological interventions, or genetic manipulations are central questions in neuroscience. Although learning is a dynamic process, current analyses do not use dynamic estimation methods, require many trials across many(More)
BACKGROUND Brugada syndrome, characterized by ST-segment elevation in the right precordial ECG leads and the development of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, has been associated with mutations in 6 different genes. We identify and characterize a mutation in a new gene. METHODS AND RESULTS A 64-year-old white male displayed a type 1 ST-segment(More)
BACKGROUND Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common clinical arrhythmia and a major cause of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Among the gene defects previously associated with AF is a gain of function of the slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium current IKs, secondary to mutations in KCNQ1. Coexpression of KCNE5, the gene encoding the(More)
Misfolded glycoproteins are translocated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the cytosol for proteasome-mediated degradation. A mannose-6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain is commonly identified in a variety of proteins and, in the case of OS-9 and XTP3-B, is involved in glycoprotein ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Trimming of outermost(More)
OBJECTIVE To analyze the incidence of ectopic pregnancy (EP) in fresh compared with frozen-thawed cycles. DESIGN Retrospective cohort study. SETTING Teaching hospital. PATIENT(S) Thirty-one thousand nine hundred twenty-five women undergoing in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer (IVF-ET) from January 2006 to December 2013. INTERVENTION(S) Fresh(More)
The mouse protein Qa-1 (HLA-E in humans) is essential for immunological protection and immune regulation. Although Qa-1 has been linked to CD8 T cell-dependent suppression, the physiological relevance of this observation is unclear. We generated mice deficient in Qa-1 to develop an understanding of this process. Qa-1-deficient mice develop exaggerated(More)
The ability of natural-killer cells to regulate adaptive immunity is not well understood. Here we define an interaction between the class Ib major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecule Qa-1-Qdm on activated T cells responsible for adaptive immunity and CD94-NKG2A inhibitory receptors expressed by natural-killer cells by using Qa-1-deficient and Qa-1(More)
BACKGROUND L-type calcium channel (LTCC) mutations have been associated with Brugada syndrome (BrS), short QT (SQT) syndrome, and Timothy syndrome (LQT8). Little is known about the extent to which LTCC mutations contribute to the J-wave syndromes associated with sudden cardiac death. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in the α1,(More)
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and aggressive brain tumor with poor clinical outcome. Identification and development of new markers could be beneficial for the diagnosis and prognosis of GBM patients. Deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) is involved in GBM. Therefore, we attempted to identify and develop specific miRNAs as prognostic(More)