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Learning to perform a behavioural procedure as a well-ingrained habit requires extensive repetition of the behavioural sequence, and learning not to perform such behaviours is notoriously difficult. Yet regaining a habit can occur quickly, with even one or a few exposures to cues previously triggering the behaviour. To identify neural mechanisms that might(More)
Understanding how an animal's ability to learn relates to neural activity or is altered by lesions, different attentional states, pharmacological interventions, or genetic manipulations are central questions in neuroscience. Although learning is a dynamic process, current analyses do not use dynamic estimation methods, require many trials across many(More)
The brain blood vasculature consists of a highly ramified vessel network that is tailored to meet its physiological functions. How the brain vasculature is formed has long been fascinating biologists. Here we report that the developing vasculature in the zebrafish midbrain undergoes not only angiogenesis but also extensive vessel pruning, which is driven by(More)
BACKGROUND Brugada syndrome, characterized by ST-segment elevation in the right precordial ECG leads and the development of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, has been associated with mutations in 6 different genes. We identify and characterize a mutation in a new gene. METHODS AND RESULTS A 64-year-old white male displayed a type 1 ST-segment(More)
Misfolded glycoproteins are translocated from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into the cytosol for proteasome-mediated degradation. A mannose-6-phosphate receptor homology (MRH) domain is commonly identified in a variety of proteins and, in the case of OS-9 and XTP3-B, is involved in glycoprotein ER-associated degradation (ERAD). Trimming of outermost(More)
BACKGROUND Genetic defects in KCNJ8, encoding the Kir6.1 subunit of the ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (I(K-ATP)), have previously been associated with early repolarization (ERS) and Brugada (BrS) syndromes. Here we test the hypothesis that genetic variants in ABCC9, encoding the ATP-binding cassette transporter of IK-ATP (SUR2A), are also associated with both(More)
Malectin is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident lectin, which recognizes di-glucosylated Glc(2)Man(9)GlcNAc(2) (G2M9) N-glycans on newly synthesized glycoproteins. We previously demonstrated that malectin preferentially associates with misfolded glycoproteins and inhibits their secretion (Chen, Y., Hu, D., Yabe, R., Tateno, H., Qin, S. Y., Matsumoto, N.,(More)
Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past(More)
The mouse protein Qa-1 (HLA-E in humans) is essential for immunological protection and immune regulation. Although Qa-1 has been linked to CD8 T cell-dependent suppression, the physiological relevance of this observation is unclear. We generated mice deficient in Qa-1 to develop an understanding of this process. Qa-1-deficient mice develop exaggerated(More)
BACKGROUND L-type calcium channel (LTCC) mutations have been associated with Brugada syndrome (BrS), short QT (SQT) syndrome, and Timothy syndrome (LQT8). Little is known about the extent to which LTCC mutations contribute to the J-wave syndromes associated with sudden cardiac death. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in the α1,(More)