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Biological Pathway Exchange (BioPAX) is a standard language to represent biological pathways at the molecular and cellular level and to facilitate the exchange of pathway data. The rapid growth of the volume of pathway data has spurred the development of databases and computational tools to aid interpretation; however, use of these data is hampered by the(More)
Gonococci (Gc) exhibit pilus+----pilus- "phase transitions" at high frequency, but only some of the pilus- Gc can revert to pilus+ phenotype. We examined reversible phase transitions between pilus+ Gc and a particular pilus- variant (P-rp+ phenotype) whose pilin mRNA carries a unique block of nucleotides encoding an "assembly missense" pilin polypeptide.(More)
BioPAX (Biological Pathway Exchange) is a standard language to represent biological pathways at the molecular and cellular level. Its major use is to facilitate the exchange of pathway data (http://www.biopax.org). Pathway data captures our understanding of biological processes, but its rapid growth necessitates development of databases and computational(More)
Pilus+ to pilus- transitions of gonococci (Gc) that involve rearrangement of pilin gene DNA yield the P-n phenotype, which is incapable of reversion (to pilus+). Reversion to pilus+ is found for nonpiliated Gc that have undergone no apparent pilin gene rearrangement. Among the reverting, nonpiliated Gc, two distinct phenotypes (P-rp- and P-rp+) occur and(More)
The pathophysiology of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease spirochete, is unique in tick/vector relationships, differing substantially from that of other spirochetes, e.g., Borrelia duttonii, the agent of tick-borne relapsing fever, and Borrelia recurrentis, the agent of louse-borne relapsing fever, in their respective vectors. Following ingestion by a(More)
When pilus+ Gc were introduced into a male subject's urethra, they gave rise to pilus+ variants whose pilin mRNAs differed from that of input Gc. The differences stemmed from the Gc genome's single complete pilin gene having undergone gene conversion by different partial pilin genes' sequences and by different length stretches of a single partial pilin(More)
Bacterial populations are often clonal, and even within a bacterial species, the frequency of gene exchange and recombination is quite low. Consequently, mobile genetic elements--plasmids, bacteriophages, and transposons--have been the central factors in the evolution of pathogenic traits. One central feature of pathogenicity, the capacity to enter(More)