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The JCR:LA-cp rat develops an extreme obese/insulin-resistant syndrome such that by 12 weeks of age, there is no longer any insulin-mediated glucose turnover. At 4 weeks of age, obese and lean rats have essentially identical basal and insulin-mediated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle. By 8 weeks of age, however, the obese rats no longer exhibit such(More)
In Drosophila, the development of the midline cells of the embryonic ventral nerve cord depends on the function of the bHLH-PAS transcription factor Single-minded (Sim). The expression domain of sim, however, is also found anterior and posterior to the developing ventral cord throughout the germ band. Indeed, mutations in sim were identified based on their(More)
Factors that stimulate formation of new adipocytes during development of obesity are yet to be identified. We examined whether diet acts directly on preadipocytes to stimulate replication and differentiation or indirectly by interacting with adipocytes to release or modify local growth factors. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed chow or diets high in starch(More)
The present study was undertaken to study the mechanism of cyclosporine-induced nephrotoxicity and hypertension. Cultured rat microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to cyclosporine for up to six days at one of the following concentrations: 10, 50, 250, and 1000 ng/ml of culture medium. Cyclosporine inhibited endothelial cell replication in a(More)
Small changes in lipogenic enzyme activity induced by dietary fats of different composition may, over the long term, have significant impact on the development of obesity. We have investigated the effect of high fat diets (45% of calories as fat) on abundance of mRNA encoding fatty acid synthetase (FAS) and glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) in male(More)
Regional adipose tissue growth may be modulated by paracrine factors that influence preadipocyte replication and/or differentiation. To investigate this hypothesis, we have studied the effects of culture media conditioned by adipose microvascular endothelial cells, preadipocytes, or mature fat cells, on rat preadipocyte replication and differentiation in(More)
The characteristics of omental adipocyte precursors from massively obese patients, whose average body weights were 231% (range 70--369) of reference values, were studied in propagating culture. When compared to cells from lean subjects, the adipocyte precursors from 34 massively obese patients replicated at a significantly higher rate (p less than 0.001).(More)
In Sprague-Dawley rats, fatty acid synthase (FAS) activity is suppressed by dietary fat. To test the hypothesis that a defect in regulation of de novo fatty acid synthesis exists in massive obesity, we investigated the effect of diet on FAS mRNA levels in genetically obese JCR:LA-corpulent (cp) rats. We also determined levels of mRNA encoding adipsin, a fat(More)
The regional diversity of adipose tissue is dramatically accentuated in states of glucocorticoid excess, in which certain fat depots expand, while others contract. We have studied the molecular basis of this redistribution by determining the activity of fatty acid synthetase and enzymes catalyzing di- and tri-acylglycerol synthesis, in subcellular fractions(More)