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—Self-assembly is expected to become a dominant fabrication technique for the nanodevices and systems of the future. Traditional, or passive, self-assembly techniques have great difficulty in producing the asymmetric structures needed by the applications. This paper discusses self-assembly methods that use active assembly agents (robots). It shows that(More)
This paper introduces the concept of a temporal occupancy grid as a method for modeling and classifying spatial areas according to the time properties of their occupancy. The method extends the idea of occupancy grids[1] by considering occupancy over a number of different timescales. This paper presents the basic formalism and its implementation using(More)
Self-assembly of active, robotic agents, rather than of passive agents such as molecules, is an emerging research field that is attracting increasing attention. Active self-assembly techniques are especially attractive at very small spatial scales, where alternative construction methods are unavailable or have severe limitations. Building nanos-tructures by(More)
Interactive manipulation of nanoparticles by mechanically pushing them with the tip of an AFM (Atomic Force Microscope) is now done routinely at many laboratories around the world. However, a human in the loop introduces significant inaccuracies and results in a very slow process, mostly because of the need for locating the particles before and after(More)
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