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The biphasic display of paw-flinch behavior in the rat after injection of formalin into the dorsum of the hind paw is used for the screening of anti-hyperalgesic agents. Described and characterized here is a less labor-intensive system for counting flinch activity by detecting movement of a small metal band placed on the formalin-injected paw. A signal is(More)
Xen2174 is a structural analogue of Mr1A, a chi-conopeptide recently isolated from the venom of the marine cone snail, Conus marmoreus. Although both chi-conopeptides are highly selective inhibitors of the norepinephrine transporter (NET), Xen2174 has superior chemical stability relative to Mr1A. It is well-known that tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are(More)
Contulakin-G is a novel conopeptide with an incompletely defined mechanism of action. To assess nociceptive activity we delivered Contulakin-G as a bolus intrathecally (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 3 nmol) or epidurally (10, 30, 89 nmol) in rats. Intrathecal Contulakin G significantly decreased Phase II and, to a lesser degree, Phase I paw flinching produced by(More)
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