Learn More
We prove that the abstract Tile Assembly Model (aTAM) of nanoscale self-assembly is intrinsically universal. This means that there is a single tile assembly system U that, with proper initialization, simulates any tile assembly system T. The simulation is " intrinsic " in the sense that the self-assembly process carried out by U is exactly that carried out(More)
We describe a computational model for studying the complexity of self-assembled structures with active molecular components. Our model captures notions of growth and movement ubiquitous in biological systems. The model is inspired by biology's fantastic ability to assemble biomolecules that form systems with complicated structure and dynamics, from(More)
We present small polynomial time universal Turing machines with state-symbol pairs of (5, 5), (6, 4), (9, 3) and (18, 2). These machines simulate our new variant of tag system, the bi-tag system and are the smallest known universal Turing machines with 5, 4, 3 and 2-symbols respectively. Our 5-symbol machine uses the same number of instructions (22) as the(More)
We show that 2-tag systems efficiently simulate Turing machines. As a corollary we find that the small universal Turing machines of Rogozhin, Minsky and others simulate Turing machines in polynomial time. This is an exponential improvement on the previously known simulation time overhead and improves a forty year old result in the area of small universal(More)
We give small universal Turing machines with state-symbol pairs of (6, 2), (3, 3) and (2, 4). These machines are weakly universal, which means that they have an infinitely repeated word to the left of their input and another to the right. They simulate Rule 110 and are currently the smallest known weakly universal Turing machines. Despite their small size(More)