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There is renewed interest in the potential contribution of community health workers to child survival. Community health workers can undertake various tasks, including case management of childhood illnesses (eg, pneumonia, malaria, and neonatal sepsis) and delivery of preventive interventions such as immunisation, promotion of healthy behaviour, and(More)
People in poor countries tend to have less access to health services than those in better-off countries, and within countries, the poor have less access to health services. This article documents disparities in access to health services in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), using a framework incorporating quality, geographic accessibility,(More)
Cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is increasingly important in public health decision making, including in low- and middle-income countries. The decision makers' valuation of a unit of health gain, or ceiling ratio (lambda), is important in CEA as the relative value against which acceptability is defined, although values are usually chosen arbitrarily in(More)
Many donors and countries are striving to respond to the HIV/AIDS epidemic by implementing prevention programmes. However, the resources available for providing these activities relative to needs are limited. Hence, decision-makers must choose among various types of interventions. Cost information, both measures of cost and cost-effectiveness, serves as a(More)
This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of community-based management of acute malnutrition (CMAM) to prevent deaths due to severe acute malnutrition among children under-five. The analysis used a decision tree model to compare the costs and effects of two options to treat severe acute malnutrition: existing health services with CMAM vs existing health(More)
Congenital syphilis was rare in most affluent countries but there has been a slight resurgence recently in several European countries. In large parts of the world and particularly sub-Saharan Africa congenital syphilis is a significant public health problem. The cornerstone of congenital syphilis control is antenatal screening and treatment of mothers with(More)
INTRODUCTION From August to December 2011, a multidisciplinary group with expertise in mathematical modeling was constituted by the GAVI Alliance and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation to estimate the impact of vaccination in 73 countries supported by the GAVI Alliance. METHODS The number of deaths averted in persons projected to be vaccinated during(More)
BACKGROUND Ageing is associated with increased risk of poor health and functional decline. Uncertainties about the health-related benefits of nutrition and physical activity for older people have precluded their widespread implementation. We investigated the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a national nutritional supplementation program and/or a(More)
We performed serial Health Care Utilization and Attitudes Surveys (HUASs) among caretakers of children ages 0-59 months randomly selected from demographically defined populations participating in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS), a case-control study of moderate-to-severe diarrhea (MSD) in seven developing countries. The surveys aimed to estimate(More)
Despite the demonstration of effectiveness and public health impact of Hib conjugate vaccines, the majority of infants from poorest countries do not yet have access to this safe and effective preventive intervention. This paper provides a descriptive analysis of the main characteristics of countries that have included Hib vaccine in their national(More)