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P2X receptors are trimeric cation channels with widespread roles in health and disease. The recent crystal structure of a P2X4 receptor provides a 3D view of their topology and architecture. A key unresolved issue is how ions gain access to the pore, because the structure reveals two different pathways within the extracellular domain. One of these is the(More)
ATP opens ionotropic P2X channels through a process that is poorly understood. We made an array of mutant rat P2X2 channels containing unique alanine substitutions in the transmembrane segments with the goal of identifying possible secondary structure and mapping gating domains in the pore. Alteration of channel function was measured as a change in ATP(More)
P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels expressed in nerve, muscle, bone, glands, and the immune system. The seven family members display variable Ca2+ permeabilities that are amongst the highest of all ligand-gated channels (Egan and Khakh, 2004). We previously reported that polar residues regulate the Ca2+ permeability of the P2X2 receptor (Migita et(More)
P2X receptors are a family of trimeric ion channels that are gated by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). These receptors have long been a subject of intense research interest by virtue of their vital role in mediating the rapid and direct effects of extracellular ATP on membrane potential and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, which in turn(More)
Human P2X receptors are a family of seven ATP-gated ion channels that transport Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) across cell surface membranes. The P2X4 receptor is unique among family members in its sensitivity to the macrocyclic lactone, ivermectin, which allosterically modulates both ion conduction and channel gating. In this paper we show that removing the fixed(More)
TRPV1 is a Ca(2+) permeable cation channel gated by multiple stimuli including noxious heat, capsaicin, protons, and extracellular cations. In this paper, we show that Ca(2+) causes a concentration and voltage-dependent decrease in the capsaicin-gated TRPV1 single-channel conductance. This Ca(2+)-dependent effect on conductance was strongest at membrane(More)
Acid Sensing Ion Channels (ASICs) are a family of proton-gated cation channels that play a role in the sensation of noxious stimuli. Of these, ASIC1a is the only family member that is reported to be permeable to Ca(2+), although the absolute magnitude of the Ca(2+) current is unclear. Here, we used patch-clamp photometry to determine the contribution of(More)
The P2X receptor is the baby brother of the ligand-gated ion channel super-family. An understanding of its role in human physiology is still developing, and no one truly knows how it works to transport ions across the membrane. In this study, we review some aspects of P2X channel biophysics, concentrating on ion permeation and gating. P2X channels transport(More)
P2X receptors are a family of seven ligand-gated ion channels (P2X1-P2X7) that open in the presence of ATP. We used alanine-scanning mutagenesis and patch clamp photometry to study the role of the first transmembrane domain of the rat P2X2 receptor in cation permeability and flux. Three alanine-substituted mutants did not respond to ATP, and 19 of the 22(More)
Opioid receptors are seven transmembrane domain Gi/G0 protein-coupled receptors, the activation of which stimulates a variety of intracellular signalling mechanisms including activation of inwardly rectifying potassium channels, and inhibition of both voltage-operated N-type Ca2+ channels and adenylyl cyclase activity. It is now apparent that like many(More)