Learn More
ATP opens ionotropic P2X channels through a process that is poorly understood. We made an array of mutant rat P2X2 channels containing unique alanine substitutions in the transmembrane segments with the goal of identifying possible secondary structure and mapping gating domains in the pore. Alteration of channel function was measured as a change in ATP(More)
P2X receptors are trimeric cation channels with widespread roles in health and disease. The recent crystal structure of a P2X4 receptor provides a 3D view of their topology and architecture. A key unresolved issue is how ions gain access to the pore, because the structure reveals two different pathways within the extracellular domain. One of these is the(More)
Human P2X receptors are a family of seven ATP-gated ion channels that transport Na(+), K(+), and Ca(2+) across cell surface membranes. The P2X4 receptor is unique among family members in its sensitivity to the macrocyclic lactone, ivermectin, which allosterically modulates both ion conduction and channel gating. In this paper we show that removing the fixed(More)
P2X receptors are ATP-gated cation channels expressed in nerve, muscle, bone, glands, and the immune system. The seven family members display variable Ca2+ permeabilities that are amongst the highest of all ligand-gated channels (Egan and Khakh, 2004). We previously reported that polar residues regulate the Ca2+ permeability of the P2X2 receptor (Migita et(More)
In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of delta-opioid receptors with [D-Pen(2,5)]-enkephalin (DPDPE; 1 microM) did not alter the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)](i). However, when DPDPE was applied during concomitant Gq-coupled m3 muscarinic receptor stimulation by carbachol or oxotremorine-M, it produced an elevation of [Ca(2+)](i). The DPDPE-evoked(More)
We investigated the properties and regulation of P2X receptors in immortalized C8-B4 cells of cerebellar microglial origin. Resting C8-B4 cells expressed virtually no functional P2X receptors, but largely increased functional expression of P2X4 receptors within 2-6 h of entering the activated state. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction, we found that(More)
P2X receptors are a family of trimeric ion channels that are gated by extracellular adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP). These receptors have long been a subject of intense research interest by virtue of their vital role in mediating the rapid and direct effects of extracellular ATP on membrane potential and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration, which in turn(More)
TRPV1 is a Ca(2+) permeable cation channel gated by multiple stimuli including noxious heat, capsaicin, protons, and extracellular cations. In this paper, we show that Ca(2+) causes a concentration and voltage-dependent decrease in the capsaicin-gated TRPV1 single-channel conductance. This Ca(2+)-dependent effect on conductance was strongest at membrane(More)
The P2X receptor is the baby brother of the ligand-gated ion channel super-family. An understanding of its role in human physiology is still developing, and no one truly knows how it works to transport ions across the membrane. In this study, we review some aspects of P2X channel biophysics, concentrating on ion permeation and gating. P2X channels transport(More)
Significant morbidity and mortality can be attributed to inflammatory diseases; therefore, a greater understanding of the mechanisms involved in the progression of inflammation is crucial. Here, we demonstrate that p21((WAF1/CIP1)), an established suppressor of cell cycle progression, is a inhibitor of IL-1beta synthesis in macrophages. Mice deficient in(More)