Damien F. Frost

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—Lithium ion batteries are promising for small off-grid energy storage applications in developing countries because of their high energy density and long life. However, costs are prohibitive. Instead, we consider " used " Li-ion batteries for this application, finding experimentally that many discarded laptop cells, for example, still have good capacity and(More)
The performance of a string of series-connected batteries is typically restricted by the worst battery cell in the string and a single failure point will render the entire string unusable. To address these issues, we present a decentralised battery management system based on a modular multilevel converter (MMC) with a distributed inductor. This novel MMC(More)
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