Damian Seung-ho Shin

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How the brain transitions into a seizure is poorly understood. Recurrent seizure-like events (SLEs) in low-Mg2+/ high-K+ perfusate were measured in the CA3 region of the intact mouse hippocampus. The SLE was divided into a "preictal phase," which abruptly turns into a higher frequency "ictal" phase. Blockade of GABA(A) receptors shortened the preictal(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by akinesia, bradykinesia, resting tremors and postural instability. Although various models have been developed to explain basal ganglia (BG) pathophysiology in PD, the recent reports that dominant beta (β) oscillations (12-30Hz) in BG nuclei of PD patients and parkinsonian animals(More)
Excitotoxic cell death (ECD) is characteristic of mammalian brain following min of anoxia, but is not observed in the western painted turtle following days to months without oxygen. A key event in ECD is a massive increase in intracellular Ca(2+) by over-stimulation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). The turtle's anoxia tolerance may involve the(More)
Without oxygen, all mammals suffer neuronal injury and excitotoxic cell death mediated by overactivation of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The western painted turtle can survive anoxia for months, and downregulation of NMDAR activity is thought to be neuroprotective during anoxia. NMDAR activity is related to the activity of(More)
Adenosine is a defensive metabolite that is critical to anoxic neuronal survival in the freshwater turtle. Channel arrest of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) is a hallmark of the turtle's remarkable anoxia tolerance and adenosine A1 receptor (A1R)-mediated depression of normoxic NMDAR activity is well documented. However, experiments examining the(More)
The mammalian brain undergoes rapid cell death during anoxia that is characterized by uncontrolled Ca(2+) entry via N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). In contrast, the western painted turtle is extremely anoxia tolerant and maintains close-to-normal [Ca(2+)](i) during periods of anoxia lasting from days to months. A plausible mechanism of anoxic(More)
An acute reduction in cell membrane permeability could provide an effective strategy to prolong anoxic survival. A previous study has shown that in the western painted turtle whole-cell neuronal conductance (G(w)) decreases during anoxia, which may be mediated by the activation of adenosine A(1) receptors and calcium. Reduction in G(w) is thought to be the(More)
Hypoxic mammalian neurons undergo excitotoxic cell death, whereas painted turtle neurons survive prolonged anoxia without apparent injury. Anoxic survival is possibly mediated by a decrease in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activity and maintenance of cellular calcium concentrations ([Ca(2+)](c)) within a narrow range during anoxia. In mammalian(More)
One potential complication of treating Parkinson's Disease (PD) with dopaminergic drugs is dopamine dysregulation syndrome, an addiction-like response to the drug therapy. Here, we assessed whether rats given parkinsonian-like symptoms with a unilateral injection of 6-hydroxydopamine into the medial forebrain bundle (6-OHDA-MFB), exhibit similar behavior.(More)
Epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are common comorbidities of one another. Despite the prevalent correlation between the two disorders, few studies have been able to elucidate a mechanistic link. We demonstrate that forebrain specific Tsc1 deletion in mice causes epilepsy and autism-like behaviors, concomitant with disruption of 5-HT(More)