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Measurement of population activity with single-action-potential, single-neuron resolution is pivotal for understanding information representation and processing in the brain and how the brain's responses are altered by experience. Genetically encoded indicators of neuronal activity allow long-term, cell type-specific expression. Fluorescent Ca2+ indicator(More)
Multiphoton imaging (MPI) is widely used for recording activity simultaneously from many neurons in superficial cortical layers in vivo. We combined regenerative amplification multiphoton microscopy (RAMM) with genetically encoded calcium indicators to extend MPI of neuronal population activity into layer 5 (L5) of adult mouse somatosensory cortex. We found(More)
Fusing left and right eye images into a single view is dependent on precise ocular alignment, which relies on coordinated eye movements. During movements of the head this alignment is maintained by numerous reflexes. Although rodents share with other mammals the key components of eye movement control, the coordination of eye movements in freely moving(More)
We describe a miniaturized head-mounted multiphoton microscope and its use for recording Ca(2+) transients from the somata of layer 2/3 neurons in the visual cortex of awake, freely moving rats. Images contained up to 20 neurons and were stable enough to record continuously for >5 min per trial and 20 trials per imaging session, even as the animal was(More)
Sensory experience can, over the course of days to weeks, produce long-lasting changes in brain function. Recent studies suggest that functional plasticity is mediated by alterations of the strengths of existing synapses or dynamics of dendritic spines. Alterations of cortical axons could also contribute to functional changes, but little is known about the(More)
We investigated the effect of selective whisker trimming on the development of the cortical representation of a whisker deflection in layer 2/3 of rat somatosensory cortex using in vivo voltage-sensitive dye (vsd) imaging. Responses to deflection of D-row whiskers were recorded after trimming of A-row, B-row, and C-row whiskers, referred to as DE pairing,(More)
Imaging technologies, such as intrinsic optical imaging (IOI), functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) or multiphoton microscopy provide excellent opportunities to study the relationship between functional signals recorded from a cortical area and the underlying anatomical structure. This, in turn, requires accurate alignment of the recorded functional(More)
Virus-based methods for labelling populations of cortical neurons, when combined with cell-type specific recombinant promoters and techniques allowing temporal control of gene expression, provide neuroscience with new opportunities to examine the connectivity between brain regions and how this connectivity is modified by experience or disease. However, to(More)
We examined the effect of whisker trimming during early postnatal development on the morphology of axonal arbors in rat somatosensory cortex. Axonal arbors from populations of layer 2/3 pyramidal neurons in the D2 column were labeled by lentivirus-mediated expression of green fluorescent protein. Axonal projection patterns were compared between untrimmed(More)