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Structural variations of DNA greater than 1 kilobase in size account for most bases that vary among human genomes, but are still relatively under-ascertained. Here we use tiling oligonucleotide microarrays, comprising 42 million probes, to generate a comprehensive map of 11,700 copy number variations (CNVs) greater than 443 base pairs, of which most (8,599)(More)
The autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are a group of conditions characterized by impairments in reciprocal social interaction and communication, and the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviours. Individuals with an ASD vary greatly in cognitive development, which can range from above average to intellectual disability. Although ASDs are known to be(More)
Mutations in SHANK3, which encodes a synaptic scaffolding protein, have been described in subjects with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). To assess the quantitative contribution of SHANK3 to the pathogenesis of autism, we determined the frequency of DNA sequence and copy-number variants in this gene in 400 ASD-affected subjects ascertained in Canada. One(More)
Using microarrays, we identified de novo copy number variations in the SHANK2 synaptic scaffolding gene in two unrelated individuals with autism-spectrum disorder (ASD) and mental retardation. DNA sequencing of SHANK2 in 396 individuals with ASD, 184 individuals with mental retardation and 659 unaffected individuals (controls) revealed additional variants(More)
Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of rare (<1% frequency) copy-number variations and point mutations in the genetic etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); these variants particularly affect genes involved in the neuronal synaptic complex. The SHANK gene family consists of three members (SHANK1, SHANK2, and SHANK3), which encode(More)
High-altitude hypoxia (reduced inspired oxygen tension due to decreased barometric pressure) exerts severe physiological stress on the human body. Two high-altitude regions where humans have lived for millennia are the Andean Altiplano and the Tibetan Plateau. Populations living in these regions exhibit unique circulatory, respiratory, and hematological(More)
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a heterogeneous group of neurodevelopmental disorders with a complex inheritance pattern. While many rare variants in synaptic proteins have been identified in patients with ASD, little is known about their effects at the synapse and their interactions with other genetic variations. Here, following the discovery of two de(More)
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/ licenses/by-nc/2.5), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. While it is apparent that rare variation can play an(More)
BACKGROUND Several genomes have now been sequenced, with millions of genetic variants annotated. While significant progress has been made in mapping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and small (<10 bp) insertion/deletions (indels), the annotation of larger structural variants has been less comprehensive. It is still unclear to what extent a typical(More)
Accumulating data indicate that there is significant genetic heterogeneity underlying the etiology in individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Some rare and highly-penetrant gene variants and copy number variation (CNV) regions including NLGN3, NLGN4, NRXN1, SHANK2, SHANK3, PTCHD1, 1q21.1, maternally-inherited duplication of 15q11-q13,(More)