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Morphogen gradients provide long-range positional information by extending across a developing field. To ensure reproducible patterning, their profile is invariable despite genetic or environmental fluctuations. Common models assume a morphogen profile that decays exponentially. Here, we show that exponential profiles cannot, at the same time, buffer(More)
Recently evidence has been presented that adenosine A2A and dopamine D2 receptors form functional heteromeric receptor complexes as demonstrated in human neuroblastoma cells and mouse fibroblast Ltk- cells. These A2A/D2 heteromeric receptor complexes undergo coaggregation, cointernalization, and codesensitization on D2 or A2A receptor agonist treatments and(More)
Gene expression depends on the frequency of transcription events (burst frequency) and on the number of mRNA molecules made per event (burst size). Both processes are encoded in promoter sequence, yet their dependence on mutations is poorly understood. Theory suggests that burst size and frequency can be distinguished by monitoring the stochastic variation(More)
Epithelial tissue functions depend largely on a polarized organization of the individual cells. We examined the roles of the Drosophila PDGF/VEGF receptor (PVR) in polarized epithelial cells, with specific emphasis on the wing disc epithelium. Although the receptor is broadly distributed in this tissue, two of its ligands, PVF1 and PVF3 are specifically(More)
The pattern of the sensory bristles in the fruit fly Drosophila is remarkably reproducible. Each bristle arises from a sensory organ precursor (SOP) cell that is selected, through a lateral inhibition process, from a cluster of proneural cells. Although this process is well characterized, the mechanism ensuring its robustness remains obscure. Using(More)
Understanding why genes evolve at different rates is fundamental to evolutionary thinking. In species of the budding yeast, the rate at which genes diverge in expression correlates with the organization of their promoter nucleosomes: genes lacking a nucleosome-free region (denoted OPN for "Occupied Proximal Nucleosomes") vary widely between the species,(More)
Cells adapt to environmental changes through genetic mutations that stabilize novel phenotypes. Often, this adaptation involves regulatory changes which modulate gene expression. In the budding yeast, ribosomal-related gene expression correlates with cell growth rate across different environments. To examine whether the same relationship between gene(More)
The Drosophila tracheal system forms by highly stereotyped migration of the tracheal cells, generating an elaborate network of interconnected tubes supplying oxygen to all tissues. A major guiding system in the migration process of all branches is the dynamic and localized expression of Branchless (Bnl), an FGF-like molecule. Bnl triggers the activation of(More)
A novel method for quantifying hemolysis is described. This method uses a spin filter to separate the free hemoglobin from the red blood cells suspended in the test solution. This procedure enables the use of a closed loop system that continuously measures hemolysis spectrophotometrically. It is shown that hemolysis does not always stop after the solution(More)