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Norm theory: Comparing reality to its alternatives
A theory of norms and normality is presented and applied to some phenomena of emotional responses, social judgment, and conversations about causes. Norms are assumed to be constructed ad hoc by…
Just world research and the attribution process: Looking back and ahead.
Rediscovering Social Innovation
In the spring of 2003, the Center for Social Innovation at the Stanford Graduate School of Business launched the Stanford Social Innovation Review. Our first “Editors’ Note” defined social innovation…
Self-serving biases in the attribution of causality: Fact or fiction?
A review of the evidence for and against the proposition that self-serving biases affect attributions of causality indicated that there is little empirical support for the proposition in its most…
Asymmetries in Attachments to Groups and to their Members: Distinguishing between Common-Identity and Common-Bond Groups
Two studies sought to validate the distinction between common-identity groups, which are based on direct attachments to the group identity, and common-bond groups, which are based on attachments…
Psychological license: When it is needed and how it functions.
Abstract Differences among people in the actions they take or the opinions they express do not always reflect differences in underlying attitudes, preferences, or motivations. When people differ in…
Combining Social Concepts: The Role of Causal Reasoning
Causal reasoning appeared to be most pervasive for combinations viewed as more surprising, suggesting that surprise may have triggered the generation of causal accounts.
When small effects are impressive
Effect size is becoming an increasingly popular measure of the importance of an effect, both in individual studies and in meta-analyses. However, a large effect size is not the only way to…
Temporal order and the perceived mutability of events: implications for blame assignment
Psychological Essentialism of Human Categories
Psychological essentialism is an ordinary mode of category representation that has powerful social-psychological consequences. This article reviews those consequences, with a focus on the distinctive…