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Testosterone (T) regulates many traits related to fitness, including aggression. However, individual variation in aggressiveness does not always relate to circulating T, suggesting that behavioural variation may be more closely related to neural sensitivity to steroids, though this issue remains unresolved. To assess the relative importance of circulating T(More)
The striatum, which processes cortical information for behavioral output, is a key target of Huntington's disease (HD), an autosomal dominant condition characterized by cognitive decline and progressive loss of motor control. Increasing evidence implicates deficient glutamate uptake caused by a down-regulation of GLT1, the primary astroglial glutamate(More)
The spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) is a sexually dimorphic group of motoneurons whose development and maintenance are under androgenic control. Exposure to androgens early in development permanently alters SNB motoneuron number and soma size; in adulthood, androgens regulate dendritic and synaptic architecture. The present set of experiments(More)
Sex steroid hormones have been thought to alter behaviors in adulthood by changing the activity of neural circuits rather than by inducing major structural changes in these pathways. In a group of androgen-sensitive motoneurons that mediate male copulatory functions, decreases in androgen levels after castration of adult rats produced dramatic structural(More)
The present study assessed whether prenatal androgen and estrogen exposure affected adult spatial learning and hippocampal morphology. Water maze performance, the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell field, and the dentate gyrus-granule cell layer (DG-GCL) morphology were assessed at adulthood (70+ days of age) in males, females, androgen-treated (testosterone(More)
Wheat germ agglutinin and cholera toxin-conjugated horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used to retrogradely and anterogradely trace connectivity between the lateral regions of the pontine nuclei and the anterior interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum in rabbits. Projections from the pontine nuclei were found to terminate in the anterior interpositus nucleus(More)
Degenerating cells may be observed with light microscopy in the hamster superior colliculus during early postnatal development. In the superficial gray layer and stratum opticum, 1.8 degenerating cells for each 1,000 live cells could be seen on the first postnatal day. This rate increased to 5.6 degenerating cells per 1,000 live cells by postnatal day 8.(More)
Testosterone regulates androgen receptor expression, soma size, and dendritic length in motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) in adult male rats. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also expressed in SNB motoneurons; BDNF maintains SNB soma size in castrates, and interacts with testosterone to regulate androgen receptor(More)
Cell number in the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) of rats was the first neural sex difference shown to differentiate under the control of androgens, acting via classical intracellular androgen receptors. SNB motoneurons reside in the lumbar spinal cord and innervate striated muscles involved in copulation, including the bulbocavernosus (BC) and(More)
Women's sexual interest changes with hormonal fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. It is unclear how hormones modify women's sexual behavior and desire, but one possibility is that they alter women's positive appraisals of stimuli and thus their sexual interest. Using 3 T fMRI, we measured neural activation in women at two time points in their menstrual(More)