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How do people choose an action to satisfy a goal from among the actions that are afforded by the environment? In 3 experiments the action modes used by actors to reach for a block placed at various distances from them were observed. In each experiment, when actors were not restricted in how they could reach for the object, the transition from their reaching(More)
Aberrant Hedgehog (Hh) pathway activation has been implicated in cancers of diverse tissues and organs, and the tumor growth-inhibiting effects of pathway antagonists in animal models have stimulated efforts to develop pathway antagonists for human therapeutic purposes. These efforts have focused largely on cyclopamine derivatives or other compounds that(More)
Laccase, EC 1.10.3.2 or p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase, has been proposed to be involved in lignin synthesis in plants based on its in vitro enzymatic activity and a close correlation with the lignification process in plants. Despite many years of research, genetic evidence for the role of laccase in lignin synthesis is still missing. By screening(More)
In a screen of drugs previously tested in humans we identified itraconazole, a systemic antifungal, as a potent antagonist of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway that acts by a mechanism distinct from its inhibitory effect on fungal sterol biosynthesis. Systemically administered itraconazole, like other Hh pathway antagonists, can suppress Hh pathway(More)
Pyrene degradation is known in bacteria. In this study, Mycobacterium sp. strain KMS was used to study the metabolites produced during, and enzymes involved in, pyrene degradation. Several key metabolites, including pyrene-4,5-dione, cis-4,5-pyrene-dihydrodiol, phenanthrene-4,5-dicarboxylic acid, and 4-phenanthroic acid, were identified during pyrene(More)
The iridoid glycoside content of individual adultEuphydryas anicia butterflies from two Colorado populations was quantitatively determined. At one site (Red Hill), larval host plants wereCastilleja integra andBesseya plantaginea, while at the other site (Cumberland Pass) a single host plant,B. alpina, was used. At Red Hill, macfadienoside and catalpol were(More)
Phytochemicals are constitutive metabolites that enable plants to overcome temporary or continuous threats integral to their environment, while also controlling essential functions of growth and reproduction. All of these roles are generally advantageous to the producing organisms but the inherent biological activity of such constituents often causes(More)
An analytical method has been developed to measure the locoweed toxin, swainsonine, in locoweed plant material. Dry ground plant samples were extracted using a small-scale liquid/liquid extraction procedure followed by isolation of the swainsonine by solid phase extraction with a cation-exchange resin. Detection and quantitation of the swainsonine were(More)
Locoweed poisoning occurs when livestock consume swainsonine-containing Astragalus and Oxytropis species over several weeks. Although the clinical and histologic changes of poisoning have been described, the dose or duration of swainsonine ingestion that results in significant or irreversible damage is not known. The purpose of this research was to document(More)
Green leaves of Ipomoea asarifolia were dosed to 10 goats. Nine goats ingesting 5-37 g/kg bw daily had clinical signs in 4-38 days. One goat ingesting 2.5 g/kg bw daily during 125 days and two control goats had no clinical signs. Clinical signs were characteristic for a tremorgenic syndrome. Five goats recovered in 4-9 days after the withdrawal of the(More)