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It has long been known that small changes to the structure of the R(2) side chain of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates can dramatically affect their potency for inhibiting bone resorption in vitro and in vivo, although the reason for these differences in antiresorptive potency have not been explained at the level of a pharmacological target. Recently,(More)
Isoprenyl diphosphate synthases are ubiquitous enzymes that catalyze the basic chain-elongation reaction in the isoprene biosynthetic pathway. Pairwise sequence comparisons were made for 6 farnesyl diphosphate synthases, 6 geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases, and a hexaprenyl diphosphate synthase. Five regions with highly conserved residues, two of which(More)
The synthesis of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP), a key intermediate in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway required for the synthesis of cholesterol and in the formation of prenylated proteins, is catalyzed by the enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPS). The crystal structure of avian recombinant FPS, the first three-dimensional structure for any(More)
The first pathway-specific step of ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in the fungus, Claviceps purpurea, is catalyzed by the prenyltransferase, 4-(gamma,gamma-dimethylallyl)tryptophan synthase. Partial sequence information was obtained for the purified enzyme and a degenerate oligonucleotide mixture was used to identify and amplify segments of the gene, dmaW. The(More)
An analysis of the x-ray structure of homodimeric avian farnesyl diphosphate synthase (geranyltransferase, EC coupled with information about conserved amino acids obtained from a sequence alignment of 35 isoprenyl diphosphate synthases that synthesize farnesyl (C15), geranylgeranyl (C20), and higher chain length isoprenoid diphosphates suggested(More)
Squalene synthase (SQS) is a bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) to give presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) and the subsequent rearrangement of PSPP to squalene. These reactions constitute the first pathway-specific steps in hopane biosynthesis in Bacteria and sterol biosynthesis in Eukarya. The(More)
The post-translational processing of the yeast a-mating pheromone precursor, Ras proteins, nuclear lamins, and some subunits of trimeric G proteins requires a set of complex modifications at their carboxyl termini. This processing includes three steps: prenylation of a cysteine residue, proteolytic processing, and carboxymethylation. In the yeast(More)
Farnesyl diphosphate synthase catalyzes the sequential head-to-tail condensation of two molecules of isopentenyl diphosphate with dimethylallyl diphosphate. In plants the presence of farnesyl diphosphate synthase isozymes offers the possibility of differential regulation. Three full-length cDNAs encoding putative isoprenoid synthases, FDS-1, FDS-2, and(More)
Prenyltransferases that catalyze the fundamental chain elongation reaction in the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway contain several highly conserved amino acids, including two aspartate-rich regions thought to be involved in substrate binding and catalysis. We report a study of site-directed mutants for yeast farnesyl-diphosphate synthase (FPPSase;(More)
Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate to produce chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), a monoterpene with a non-head-to-tail or irregular c1'-2-3 linkage between isoprenoid units. Irregular monoterpenes are common in Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and related members of the Asteraceae(More)