Dale M. Walker

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The current worldwide spread of the human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) to the heterosexual population has resulted in approximately 800,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected mothers. In the absence of anti-retroviral intervention, about 25% of the approximately 7,000 children born yearly to HIV-1-infected women in the United States are HIV-1(More)
Cigarette smoking is generally believed to be responsible for a substantial number of human health problems. However, the causal relationship between smoking, the induction of biological effects and the extent of health problems among smokers have not been fully documented. Using the recently developed lymphocyte micronucleus (MN) assay, we have evaluated(More)
The species specific response to 1,3-butadiene (BD), an important industrial chemical, was investigated by determining the influence of exposure duration and exposure concentration on the mutagenicity of BD in mice and rats and by defining the spectra of mutations in the Hprt gene T-cell mutants from control and BD-exposed mice. Female B6C3F1 mice and F344(More)
Experiments were performed: (i) to investigate potential age- and gender-dependent differences in mutagenic responses in T cells following exposures of B6C3F1 mice and F344 rats by inhalation for 2 weeks to 0 or 1250 ppm butadiene (BD), and (ii) to determine if exposures for 2 weeks to 62.5 ppm BD produce a mutagenic effect in female rats. To evaluate the(More)
A study was conducted to test the hypothesis that repeated low level exposures to 1,3-butadiene (BD), approaching the OSHA occupational threshold for this chemical, produce a significant mutagenic response in mice. Female B6C3F1 mice (4-5 weeks of age) were exposed by inhalation for 2 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week) to 0 or 3 ppm BD, and then necropsied at 4(More)
The linear nonthreshold (LNT) model plays a central role in low-dose radiation risk assessment for humans. With the LNT model, any radiation exposure is assumed to increase one's risk of cancer. Based on the LNT model, others have predicted tens of thousands of deaths related to environmental exposure to radioactive material from nuclear accidents (e.g.,(More)
[3H]Cytochalasin B was used as a ligand to identify and characterize the glucose transporter in cerebral microvessels of the rat and the pig. Specific cytochalasin B binding, defined as that fraction of the total binding that is stereospecifically displaced by excess (500 mM) D-glucose, is saturable. Kinetic studies of this specific binding to cerebral(More)
The carcinogenicity of 1,3-butadiene (BD) is related to its bioactivation to several DNA-reactive metabolites; accumulating evidence suggests that the stereochemistry of these BD intermediates may play a significant role in the mutagenic and carcinogenic actions of the parent compound. The objective of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and(More)
The optimization of the mouse lymphocyte Hprt mutation assay has been impeded by the relatively poor growth potential of mouse T-cells in vitro, which leads to low cloning efficiencies (CEs) and limited expansion of Hprt mutant clones for molecular analysis of mutations occurring in control and treated mice. In this study, the addition and manipulation of(More)
The purpose of this study was to determine if Hprt mutant frequency (Mf) data from rodents exposed directly to individual epoxy metabolites of 1,3-butadiene (BD) can be used to identify the relative significance of each intermediate in the mutagenicity of BD in mice vs. rats. To this end, the relative contributions of the racemic mixtures of BD monoepoxide(More)