Dale Lynn Barnard

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A series of pyrazinecarboxamide derivatives T-705 (favipiravir), T-1105 and T-1106 were discovered to be candidate antiviral drugs. These compounds have demonstrated good activity in treating viral infections in laboratory animals caused by various RNA viruses, including influenza virus, arenaviruses, bunyaviruses, West Nile virus (WNV), yellow fever virus(More)
The innate immune system provides a first line of defense against invading pathogens by releasing multiple inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which directly combat the infectious agent and recruit additional immune responses. This exuberant cytokine release paradoxically injures the host by triggering leakage(More)
The carbocyclic transition state sialic acid analog GS4071 ([3R,4R,5S]-4-acetamido-5-amino-3-[1-ethylpropoxy]-1-cyclohexane-1 -carboxylic acid), a potent influenza virus neuraminidase inhibitor, was highly inhibitory to influenza A/NWS/33 (H1N1), A/Victoria/3/75 (H3N2), A/Shangdong/09/93 (H3N2) and B/Hong Kong/5/72 viruses in Madin Darby canine kidney(More)
Favipiravir (T-705; 6-fluoro-3-hydroxy-2-pyrazinecarboxamide) is an antiviral drug that selectively inhibits the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of influenza virus. It is phosphoribosylated by cellular enzymes to its active form, favipiravir-ribofuranosyl-5'-triphosphate (RTP). Its antiviral effect is attenuated by the addition of purine nucleic acids,(More)
Biflavonoids such as amentoflavone (1), agathisflavone (2), robustaflavone (3), hinokiflavone (4), volkensiflavone (5), rhusflavanone (7), succedaneflavanone (9), all isolated from Rhus succedanea and Garcinia multiflora, as well as their methyl ethers and acetates, volkensiflavone hexamethyl ether (6), rhusflavanone hexaacetate (8), and succedaneflavanone(More)
Viruses of the family Coronaviridae have recently emerged through zoonotic transmission to become serious human pathogens. The pathogenic agent responsible for severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), the SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV), is a member of this large family of positive-strand RNA viruses that cause a spectrum of disease in humans, other mammals,(More)
Viramidine, the 3-carboxamidine derivative of ribavirin, was effective against a spectrum of influenza A (H1N1, H3N2 and H5N1) and B viruses in vitro, with the 50% effective concentration (EC50) ranging from 2 to 32 microg/ml. The mean 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) in the MDCK cells used in these experiments was 760 microg/ml. Ribavirin, run in(More)
Methods have been developed previously for rapid evaluation of compounds for antiviral activity in 96-well microplates, which include visual quantitation of antiviral activity based upon inhibition of virus-induced cytopathic effect (CPE) or by less subjective colorimetric or fluorometric means. In the present studies we compared a number of colorimetric(More)
Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a highly lethal emerging disease caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV. New lethal animal models for SARS were needed to facilitate antiviral research. We adapted and characterized a new strain of SARS-CoV (strain v2163) that was highly lethal in 5- to 6-week-old BALB/c mice. It had nine mutations affecting 10 amino acid(More)
The interaction of the human adenovirus proteinase (AVP) and AVP-DNA complexes with the 11-amino acid cofactor pVIc was characterized. The equilibrium dissociation constant for the binding of pVIc to AVP was 4.4 microM. The binding of AVP to 12-mer single-stranded DNA decreased the K(d) for the binding of pVIc to AVP to 0.09 microM. The pVIc-AVP complex(More)