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SUMMARY Inferences for spatial data are affected substantially by the spatial configuration of the network of sites where measurements are taken. In this article, criteria for network design that emphasize the utility of the network for prediction (kriging) of unobserved responses assuming known spatial covariance parameters are contrasted with criteria(More)
BACKGROUND The assignment of a point-level geocode to subjects' residences is an important data assimilation component of many geographic public health studies. Often, these assignments are made by a method known as automated geocoding, which attempts to match each subject's address to an address-ranged street segment georeferenced within a streetline(More)
BACKGROUND This research develops methods for determining the effect of geocoding quality on relationships between environmental exposures and health. The likelihood of detecting an existing relationship - statistical power - between measures of environmental exposures and health depends not only on the strength of the relationship but also on the level of(More)
The characterization of spatial dependence is an important component of a spatial modeling exercise. For reasons of convenience, model parsimony, or computational efficiency, the spatial covariance structure is often assumed to be isotropic (direction-invariant), completely symmetric, or reflection symmetric (the latter two being forms of directional(More)
SUMMARY The variogram plays a central role in the analysis of geostatistical data. A valid variogram model is selected and the parameters of that model are estimated before kriging (spatial prediction) is performed. These inference procedures are generally based upon examination of the empirical variogram, which consists of average squared di€erences of(More)
(ASPH); its contents are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the CDC or ASPH. Abstract The availability of individual-level health data presents opportunities for monitoring the distribution and spread of emergent, acute, and chronic conditions, as well as challenges with respect to maintaining the(More)
Owing to the importance of snowfall to water supplies in the western United States, government agencies regularly collect data on snow water equivalent (the amount of water in snow) over this region. Several different measurement systems, of possibly different levels of accuracy and reliability, are in operation: snow courses, snow telemetry, aerial(More)
Geocoding a study population as completely as possible is an important data assimilation component of many spatial epidemiologic studies. Unfortunately, complete geocoding is rare in practice. The failure of a substantial proportion of study subjects' addresses to geocode has consequences for spatial analyses, some of which are not yet fully understood.(More)
its contents are the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official views of the CDC or ASPH. Abstract The accurate assignment of geocodes to the residences of subjects in a study population is an important component of the data acquisition/assimilation stage of a spatial epidemiological investigation. Unfortunately, however, it(More)