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BACKGROUND The Cation Diffusion Facilitator (CDF) family is a ubiquitous family of heavy metal transporters. Much interest in this family has focused on implications for human health and bioremediation. In this work a broad phylogenetic study has been undertaken which, considered in the context of the functional characteristics of some fully characterised(More)
Cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) is a ubiquitous signalling component in plant cells. Numerous stimuli trigger sustained or transient elevations of [Ca2+]cyt that evoke downstream stimulus-specific responses. Generation of [Ca2+]cyt signals is effected through stimulus-induced opening of Ca2+-permeable ion channels that catalyse a flux of Ca2+ into the(More)
Cells must respond to an array of environmental and developmental cues. The signaling networks that have evolved to generate appropriate cellular responses are varied and are normally composed of elements that include a sequence of receptors, nonprotein messengers, enzymes and transcription factors. Receptors are normally highly specific for the(More)
Calcium mobilization from intracellular pools couples many stimuli to responses in plant cells. Cyclic adenosine 5'-diphosphoribose (cADPR), which interacts with a ryanodine receptor in certain animal cells, was shown to elicit calcium release at the vacuolar membrane of beet storage root. The vacuolar calcium release pathway showed similarities to(More)
This paper develops a simple reaction-kinetic model to describe electrogenic pumping and co- (or counter-) transport of ions. It uses the standard steady-state approach for cyclic enzyme- or carrier-mediated transport, but does not assume rate-limitation by any particular reaction step. Voltage-dependence is introduced, after the suggestion of Läuger and(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana genome contains 20 cyclic nucleotide gated channel (CNGC) genes encoding putative non-selective ion channels. Classical and reverse genetic approaches have revealed that two members of this family (CNGC2 and CNGC4) play a role in plant defence responses whereas CNGC1 and CNGC10 may participate in heavy metal and cation transport.(More)
alpha-1,4-linked oligogalacturonides (OGs) are pectic fragments of plant cell walls that are able to induce defence and developmental responses. To understand plant responses to OGs at the transcriptional level, changes in gene expression were examined using oligonucleotide-based microarrays that cover almost the entire Arabidopsis transcriptome. In(More)
To elucidate the kinetic properties of the Arabidopsis H+/sucrose cotransporter, SUC1, with respect to transmembrane voltage and ligand concentrations, the transport system was heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Steady-state plasma membrane currents associated with transport of sucrose were measured with two-electrode voltage clamp over the(More)
Ligand-gated Ca(2+) channels provide a possible mechanism for linking perception of stimuli to intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Evidence for ligand-gated Ca(2+) release in plant cells arises from radiolabeled ligand binding, microsomal ion flux, and electrophysiological approaches. Results from these diverse approaches demonstrate that two classes of(More)