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After the Women's Health Initiative found that the risks of hormone therapy outweighed the benefits, a need for alternative drugs to treat menopausal symptoms has emerged. We explored the possibility that botanical agents used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for menopausal symptoms contain ERbeta-selective estrogens. We previously reported that an extract(More)
Estrogens are used extensively to treat hot flashes in menopausal women. Some of the beneficial effects of estrogens in hormone therapy on the brain might be due to nongenomic effects in neurons such as the rapid stimulation of calcium oscillations. Most studies have examined the nongenomic effects of estrogen receptors (ER) in primary neurons or brain(More)
Estrogens produce biological effects by interacting with two estrogen receptors, ERalpha and ERbeta. Drugs that selectively target ERalpha or ERbeta might be safer for conditions that have been traditionally treated with non-selective estrogens. Several synthetic and natural ERbeta-selective compounds have been identified. One class of ERbeta-selective(More)
Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), such as tamoxifen and raloxifene can act as estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists or agonists depending on the cell type. The antagonistic action of tamoxifen has been invaluable for treating breast cancer, whereas the agonist activity of SERMs also has important clinical applications as demonstrated by the use(More)
Disclosure Statement: The authors have nothing to declare. ABSTRACT Estrogen receptors (ER) regulate transcription by interacting with regulatory elements in target genes. However, known ER regulatory elements cannot explain the expression profiles of genes activated by estradiol (E 2) and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs). We previously showed(More)
The effect of glucocorticoids on collagen synthesis was examined in cultured bovine aortic smooth muscle (BASM) cells. BASM cells treated with 0.1 microM dexamethasone during their proliferative phase (11 d) were labeled with [3H]proline for 24 h, and the acid-precipitable material was incubated with bacterial collagenase. Dexamethasone produced an(More)
Long-term estrogen deficiency increases the risk of obesity, diabetes and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women. Menopausal hormone therapy containing estrogens might prevent these conditions, but its prolonged use increases the risk of breast cancer, as wells as endometrial cancer if used without progestins. Animal studies indicate that beneficial(More)
Tamoxifen can stimulate the growth of some breast tumors and others can become resistant to tamoxifen. We previously showed that unliganded ERbeta inhibits ERalpha-mediated proliferation of MCF-7 cells. We investigated if tamoxifen might have a potential negative effect on some breast cancer cells by blocking the effects of unliganded ERbeta on gene(More)
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