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Significant advances have taken place in our knowledge of the enzymes involved in steroid hormone biosynthesis since the last comprehensive review in 1988. Major developments include the cloning, identification, and characterization of multiple isoforms of 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which play a critical role in the biosynthesis of all steroid(More)
The central nervous system synthesizes steroids which regulate the development and function of neurons and glia and have neuroprotective properties. The first step in this process involves the delivery of free cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it can be converted into pregnenolone. This delivery is mediated by steroidogenic acute(More)
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in a variety of pathophysiological conditions of the testis, and oxidative stress is known to inhibit ovarian and testicular steroidogenesis. The site of ROS-mediated inhibition of steroidogenesis in the corpus luteum and MA-10 tumor Leydig cells was shown to be the hormone-sensitive mitochondrial cholesterol(More)
The steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is a vital mitochondrial protein that is indispensable for the synthesis of steroid hormones in the steroidogenic cells of the adrenal cortex and the gonads. Recent studies have shown that StAR enhances the conversion of the substrate for all steroid hormones, cholesterol, into pregnenolone, probably by(More)
In peripheral steroidogenic tissues, dehydroepiandrosterone (D) is formed from pregnenolone (P) by the microsomal cytochrome P450c17 enzyme. Although some steroidogenic P450s have been found in brain tissue, no enzyme has been shown to possess P450c17 activity. We recently demonstrated the presence of an alternative, Fe(2+)-dependent pathway responsible for(More)
In order to study the effect of phosphorylation on the function of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), 10 putative phosphorylation sites were mutated in the hamster StAR. In pcDNA3.1-StAR transfected COS-1 cells, decreases in basal activity were found for the mutants S55A, S185A and S194A. Substitution of S185 by D or E to mimic(More)
Cytokines produced by immune-activated testicular interstitial macrophages (TIMs) may play a fundamental role in the local control mechanisms of testosterone biosynthesis in Leydig cells. We investigated whether in vivo immune-activation of TIMs can modulate Leydig cell steroidogenesis. To immune activate TIMs in vivo, mice were injected intraperitoneally(More)
Cultured human luteinized granulosa cells (GC) are a unique model to study regulation of the human corpus luteum, e.g. by local factors, including acetylcholine (ACh). GC express functional ACh-receptors of the M1-type (M1R). Priming with the cholinergic agonist carbachol for 24 h, followed by a 24 h stimulation with human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG),(More)
Post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation and specific proteolysis affect the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) activity. We have found that in pcDNA3.1-StAR-transfected COS-1 cells, StAR was phosphorylated on S55, S56 and S194 (Fleury et al., unpublished). In this study, we are comparing the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis(More)
An effective way to control cancer is by prevention. Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. Progress in the treatment and prevention of ovarian cancer has been hampered due to the lack of an appropriate animal model and absence of effective chemo-prevention strategies. The domestic hens spontaneously develop ovarian adenocarcinomas that(More)