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The central nervous system synthesizes steroids which regulate the development and function of neurons and glia and have neuroprotective properties. The first step in this process involves the delivery of free cholesterol to the inner mitochondrial membrane where it can be converted into pregnenolone. This delivery is mediated by steroidogenic acute(More)
Macrophage-secreted cytokines, such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), have been shown to modulate Leydig cell function. The present study examined the effect of recombinant murine IL-1 alpha on Leydig cell steroidogenesis and its mechanism of action. Addition of IL-1 to macrophage-depleted primary cultures of mouse Leydig cells caused a dose-dependent decrease in(More)
Inflammatory disease is known to affect male reproductive function and fertility. Male accessory gland infections (MAGI) account for almost 15% of all cases of male infertility seen in infertility clinics. Infections of the male accessory glands are associated with increased counts of white blood cells in semen and elevated levels of pro-inflammatory(More)
Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) is a cytokine principally secreted from macrophages and monocytes activated by agents such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We have recently shown that TNF alpha inhibited mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis in vitro. LPS injection has also been shown to repress Leydig cell function and induce TNF alpha messenger RNA (mRNA)(More)
The metabolism of cholesterol by cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme is hormonally regulated in steroidogenic tissues via intramitochondrial cholesterol transport. The mediating steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) is synthesized as a 37-kDa (p37) precursor that is phosphorylated by protein kinase A and cleaved within the mitochondria to(More)
Epithelial ovarian cancer (OvCa) is associated with high mortality and, as the majority (>75%) of women with OvCa have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis, rates of survival have not changed appreciably over 30 years. A mechanistic understanding of OvCa initiation and progression is hindered by the complexity of genetic and/or environmental(More)
Immune activation results in the activation of adrenal steroidogenesis and inhibition of gonadal steroidogenesis. Previous studies indicated that these effects were caused primarily by activation and suppression of the secretion of ACTH and LH, respectively. However, other evidence indicated a direct effect of the immune system on the gonads. In this study,(More)
The first and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones is the transfer of cholesterol into mitochondria, which is facilitated by the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein. Recent studies of Leydig cell function have focused on the molecular events controlling steroidogenesis; however, few studies have examined the importance of the(More)
Male accessory sex gland infections are considered to be hazards to male fertility. Various pathophysiologic concepts have evolved from experimental and clinical studies that begin to explain the effects of bacteria and immunologic events on spermatozoa. Recent studies have identified and evaluated mediators that are responsible for specific molecular(More)
The goal of the present study was to examine hepatic differential gene expression patterns in Fisher-344 rats in response to dietary 2-aminoanthracene (2AA) ingestion for 14 and 28 days. Twenty four post-weaning 3-4 week old F-344 male rats were exposed to 0 mgkg(-1)-diet (control), 50 mgkg(-1)-diet (low dose), 75 mgkg(-1)-diet (medium dose) and 100(More)