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The tiny parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (GHWFs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. However, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development(More)
The developmental progress of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii) 3rd instars and 4th instar/pharate adults was monitored using a tracking system that had been designed to identify synchronous individuals in another species of whitefly, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. When reared on greenbean under conditions of LD 16:8 and a(More)
Ecdysteroid titers and expression profiles of ecdysone-regulated genes were determined during the last instar larval and during the pupal stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Three peaks of ecdysteroids occurring at approximately 24, 30-33 and 45-48h after ecdysis to the fourth instar larval stage were detected. In the pupa, a large peak of(More)
The effect of hostage, the instar of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) parasitized, on the growth and development of Encarsia formosa (Gahan) was studied. E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but(More)
Toxin complex a (Tca), a high molecular weight insecticidal protein complex produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, has been found to be orally toxic to both the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B. The 48 hour LC50 for Tca against neonate L. decemlineata was(More)
We examined growth rates, gas exchange patterns and energy metabolism of tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta) larvae parasitized by the braconid wasp Cotesia congragata. Lar-vae parasitized at the beginning of the fourth-instar had reduced growth compared to unpara-sitized larvae of the same age and short-term differences in metabolism (measured as rates of CO(More)
Colorado potato beetles have been reared successfully through 12 generations on artificial diets containing either 2.5% potato leaf powder or 2.5% lettuce leaf powder/0.75% potato leaf powder. For all but one of the treatment groups, the mean duration of each of the four larval stages was between 0.8 and 1.5 days longer than the durations exhibited by(More)
It has been reported that the aphelinid wasp Eertmocerus mundus parasitizes all four nymphal instars of the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Biotype B), with 3rd instars being the preferred hosts. The parasitoid lays its egg on the leaf underneath the host nymph. First instars hatch and later penetrate the whitefly. Previous studies have shown that(More)
Testes of lepidoptera synthesized ecdysteroid in a somewhat different temporal pattern than the prothoracic glands that release ecdysteroid to the hemolymph. Brain extracts from Heliothis virescens and Lymantria dispar induced testes to synthesize ecdysteroid, but did not affect prothoracic glands. The testis ecdysiotropin (LTE) was isolated from L. dispar(More)