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Salivary gland degeneration in the female tick Amblyomma hebraeum Koch is triggered by an ecdysteroid (ES) hormone. Under both in vivo and in vitro conditions, degeneration requires 4 days for completion. In partially fed females that have fed beyond a "critical weight," the commitment period for salivary gland degeneration occurs between 24 and 48 h after(More)
The tiny parasitoid wasp, Encarsia formosa, has been used successfully to control greenhouse whiteflies (GHWFs) in greenhouses in many countries throughout the world. Therefore, there has been considerable interest in developing methods for artificially rearing this wasp. However, little information is available concerning the regulation of its development(More)
The developmental progress of silverleaf whitefly (Bemisia argentifolii) 3rd instars and 4th instar/pharate adults was monitored using a tracking system that had been designed to identify synchronous individuals in another species of whitefly, the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum. When reared on greenbean under conditions of LD 16:8 and a(More)
Ecdysteroid titers and expression profiles of ecdysone-regulated genes were determined during the last instar larval and during the pupal stages of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Three peaks of ecdysteroids occurring at approximately 24, 30-33 and 45-48h after ecdysis to the fourth instar larval stage were detected. In the pupa, a large peak of(More)
Toxin complex a (Tca), a high molecular weight insecticidal protein complex produced by the entomopathogenic bacterium Photorhabdus luminescens, has been found to be orally toxic to both the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, and the sweet potato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci biotype B. The 48 hour LC50 for Tca against neonate L. decemlineata was(More)
Wasp parasitoids use a variety of methods to commandeer their insect hosts in order to create an environment that will support and promote their own development, usually to the detriment of the host insect. Parasitized insects typically undergo developmental arrest and die sometime after the parasitoid has become independent of its host. Parasitoids can(More)
Isolated stem cells from the midguts of Manduca sexta and Heliothis virescens can be induced to differentiate in vitro by either of two polypeptide factors. One of the peptides was isolated from culture medium conditioned by differentiating mixed midgut cells; we used high performance liquid chromatographic separation and Edman degradation of the most(More)
There is relatively little information available concerning the physiological and biochemical interactions between whiteflies and their parasitoids. In this report, we describe interactions between aphelinid parasitoids and their aleyrodid hosts that we have observed in four host-parasite systems: Bemisia tabaci/Encarsia formosa, Trialeurodes(More)
Trypsin modulating oostatic factor (TMOF) is a decapeptide that inhibits the biosynthesis of trypsin-like enzymes in the midgut of several insect species and, as such, serves as a dipteran oostatic hormone. In vitro incubation of lepidopteran prothoracic glands with Aedes aegypti TMOF revealed that this decapeptide, in the presence of brain extract,(More)
In insects, developmental responses are organ- and tissue-specific. In previous studies of insect midgut cells in primary tissue cultures, growth-promoting and differentiation factors were identified from the growth media, hemolymph, and fat body. Recently, it was determined that the mitogenic effect of a Manduca sexta fat body extract on midgut stem cells(More)