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BACKGROUND Short sleep is associated with obesity and may alter the endocrine regulation of hunger and appetite. OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that the curtailment of human sleep could promote excessive energy intake. DESIGN Eleven healthy volunteers [5 women, 6 men; mean +/- SD age: 39 +/- 5 y; mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 26.5 +/-(More)
Prospective studies indicate that elevated scores on dietary restraint scales predict bulimic symptom onset, but experiments indicate that assignment to dietary restriction interventions reduces bulimic symptoms. One possible explanation for the inconsistent findings is that the dietary restraint scales used in the former studies are not valid measures of(More)
A field biochemical epidemiology study was conducted using the Michigan cohort consisting of 51 rural residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The study had three major objectives: a) to determine the serum half-life of the major PBB congener, hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), in the human, b) to determine if the PBB-exposed subjects had elevated(More)
Fatty acid oxidation was studied in 12 patients (aged 3 to 19 years) receiving valproic acid (VPA), predominantly as monotherapy, before and after 1 month of L-carnitine supplementation (50 mg/kg/day po) in order to determine whether L-carnitine plays a role in preventing the hepatotoxic effects of this drug. Five of these patients were also studied prior(More)
BACKGROUND While the preclinical development of type 2 diabetes is partly explained by obesity and central adiposity, psychosocial research has shown that chronic stressors such as discrimination have health consequences as well. PURPOSE We investigated the extent to which the well-established effects of obesity and central adiposity on nondiabetic(More)
BACKGROUND The prevalence of obesity has increased in societies of all socio-cultural backgrounds. To date, guidelines set forward to prevent obesity have universally emphasized optimal levels of physical activity. However there are few empirical data to support the assertion that low levels of energy expenditure in activity is a causal factor in the(More)
BACKGROUND Populations in transition to a Western lifestyle display increased incidences of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases; the mechanisms responsible for these changes, however, remain incompletely understood. Although reduced physical activity has been implicated, few studies have accurately quantified energy expenditure in(More)
BACKGROUND Skeletal muscle tissue holds a large volume of water partitioned into extracellular water (ECW) and intracellular water (ICW) fractions. As the ECW may not be related to muscle strength directly, we hypothesized that excluding ECW from muscle volume would strengthen the correlation with muscle strength. METHODS A total of 119 healthy men aged(More)
Current obesity prevention strategies recommend increasing daily physical activity, assuming that increased activity will lead to corresponding increases in total energy expenditure and prevent or reverse energy imbalance and weight gain [1-3]. Such Additive total energy expenditure models are supported by exercise intervention and accelerometry studies(More)
We describe the approach taken by the National Children's Study (NCS) to understanding the role of environmental factors in the development of obesity. We review the literature with regard to the two core hypotheses in the NCS that relate to environmental origins of obesity and describe strategies that will be used to test each hypothesis. Although it is(More)