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BACKGROUND Short sleep is associated with obesity and may alter the endocrine regulation of hunger and appetite. OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that the curtailment of human sleep could promote excessive energy intake. DESIGN Eleven healthy volunteers [5 women, 6 men; mean +/- SD age: 39 +/- 5 y; mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 26.5 +/-(More)
We used morphometric techniques and isotope-labeled water to investigate the influence of abundant, accessible food and resultant low activity levels on body size and fatness in free-living adolescent and adult baboons as compared to animals in the same population that experienced more typical, wild-feeding conditions. Females that had access to abundant(More)
Prospective studies indicate that elevated scores on dietary restraint scales predict bulimic symptom onset, but experiments indicate that assignment to dietary restriction interventions reduces bulimic symptoms. One possible explanation for the inconsistent findings is that the dietary restraint scales used in the former studies are not valid measures of(More)
Epidemiological studies of diet and disease rely on the accurate determination of dietary intake and subsequent estimates of nutrient exposure. Although methodically developed and tested, the instruments most often used to collect self-reported intake data are subject to error. It had been assumed that this error was only random in nature; however, an(More)
BACKGROUND Most large cohort studies have used a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing dietary intake. Several biomarker studies, however, have cast doubt on whether the FFQ has sufficient precision to allow detection of moderate but important diet-disease associations. We use data from the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) study to(More)
BACKGROUND Populations in transition to a Western lifestyle display increased incidences of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other chronic diseases; the mechanisms responsible for these changes, however, remain incompletely understood. Although reduced physical activity has been implicated, few studies have accurately quantified energy expenditure in(More)
Body mass index (BMI) is the most commonly used measure of obesity. Recently, some investigators have advocated direct measurement of adiposity rather than use of the BMI. This study was undertaken to determine the ability of BMI to predict body fat levels in three populations of West African heritage living in different environments. A total of 1,054 black(More)
A field biochemical epidemiology study was conducted using the Michigan cohort consisting of 51 rural residents exposed to polybrominated biphenyls (PBB). The study had three major objectives: a) to determine the serum half-life of the major PBB congener, hexabromobiphenyl (HBB), in the human, b) to determine if the PBB-exposed subjects had elevated(More)
Fatty acid oxidation was studied in 12 patients (aged 3 to 19 years) receiving valproic acid (VPA), predominantly as monotherapy, before and after 1 month of L-carnitine supplementation (50 mg/kg/day po) in order to determine whether L-carnitine plays a role in preventing the hepatotoxic effects of this drug. Five of these patients were also studied prior(More)
BACKGROUND While the preclinical development of type 2 diabetes is partly explained by obesity and central adiposity, psychosocial research has shown that chronic stressors such as discrimination have health consequences as well. PURPOSE We investigated the extent to which the well-established effects of obesity and central adiposity on nondiabetic(More)