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BACKGROUND Short sleep is associated with obesity and may alter the endocrine regulation of hunger and appetite. OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that the curtailment of human sleep could promote excessive energy intake. DESIGN Eleven healthy volunteers [5 women, 6 men; mean +/- SD age: 39 +/- 5 y; mean +/- SD body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 26.5 +/-(More)
To further validate the doubly labeled water method for measurement of CO2 production and energy expenditure in humans, we compared it with near-continuous respiratory gas exchange in nine healthy young adult males. Subjects were housed in a respiratory chamber for 4 days. Each received 2H2(18)O at either a low (n = 6) or a moderate (n = 3) isotope dose.(More)
Daily metabolizable energy intake (ME) and total daily energy expenditure (TEE) were measured in 28 nonobese and 27 obese adolescents over a 2-wk period. Reported ME was significantly (p less than 0.001) lower than measured TEE in both the nonobese and the obese groups (2193 +/- 618 vs 2755 +/- 600 kcal/d and 1935 +/- 722 vs 3390 +/- 612 kcal/d,(More)
Multiple-day food records or 24-hour dietary recalls (24HRs) are commonly used as "reference" instruments to calibrate food frequency questionnaires (FFQs) and to adjust findings from nutritional epidemiologic studies for measurement error. Correct adjustment requires that the errors in the adopted reference instrument be independent of those in the FFQ and(More)
The accuracy and precision of the doubly labeled water method for measuring energy expenditure are influenced by isotope fractionation during evaporative water loss and CO2 excretion. To characterize in vivo isotope fractionation, we collected and isotopically analyzed physiological fluids and gases. Breath and transcutaneous water vapor were isotopically(More)
This paper describes the Observing Protein and Energy Nutrition (OPEN) Study, conducted from September 1999 to March 2000. The purpose of the study was to assess dietary measurement error using two self-reported dietary instruments-the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and the 24-hour dietary recall (24HR)-and unbiased biomarkers of energy and protein(More)
To identify the physiologic factor(s) that entrain the diurnal rhythm of plasma leptin, leptin levels were measured hourly after changes in light/dark cycle, sleep/wake cycle, and meal timing. Four young male subjects were studied during each of two protocols, those being a simulated 12-h time zone shift and a 6.5-h meal shift. During the baseline day,(More)
Deuterium or tritium labeled water traditionally has been used for the measurement of total body water by application of the dilution principle. However, these methods have not enjoyed wide clinical use. The use of deuterium is hampered by the tedious and time consuming nature of the analysis while the use of tritium involves a radiation hazard. In(More)
We used morphometric techniques and isotope-labeled water to investigate the influence of abundant, accessible food and resultant low activity levels on body size and fatness in free-living adolescent and adult baboons as compared to animals in the same population that experienced more typical, wild-feeding conditions. Females that had access to abundant(More)
The isotopic loading dose and metabolic period for the measurement of energy expenditure in humans by the doubly labeled water method were predicted by a propagation of error analysis. Factors considered for sources of error were analytical errors in the mass spectrometric determination of isotopic enrichments, biological variation in the isotopic(More)