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tables, and brief excerpts from this work in scientific and educational works is hereby granted provided that the source is acknowledged. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be " fair use " under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC §108, as(More)
OBJECTIVE We describe factors, in the context of the Social Determinants of Health model, associated with receiving Pap smears within risk-appropriate guidelines (i.e., guidelines that specify screening intervals based upon a woman's individual risk of developing cervical cancer). METHODS Completed in June 2006, we conducted a cross-sectional survey of(More)
BACKGROUND Screening has become one of our best tools for early detection and prevention of cancer. The group-randomized trial is the most rigorous experimental design for evaluating multilevel interventions. However, identifying the proper sample size for a group-randomized trial requires reliable estimates of intraclass correlation (ICC) for screening(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the performance characteristics of the Institute for Healthcare Improvement Global Trigger Tool (GTT) to determine its reliability for tracking local and national adverse event rates. DATA SOURCES Primary data from 2008 chart reviews. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective study in a stratified random sample of 10 North Carolina hospitals.(More)
Vaccination coverage is an important public health indicator that is measured using administrative reports and/or surveys. The measurement of vaccination coverage in low- and middle-income countries using surveys is susceptible to numerous challenges. These challenges include selection bias and information bias, which cannot be solved by increasing the(More)
Nationally representative household surveys are increasingly relied upon to measure maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) intervention coverage at the population level in low- and middle-income countries. Surveys are the best tool we have for this purpose and are central to national and global decision making. However, all survey point estimates have a(More)
Vaccination coverage is a widely used indicator of programme performance, measured by registries, routine administrative reports or household surveys. Because the population denominator and the reported number of vaccinations used in administrative estimates are often inaccurate, survey data are often considered to be more reliable. Many countries obtain(More)
BACKGROUND Researchers around the world are using Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) techniques to assess public health parameters and evaluate program outcomes. In this paper, we report that there are actually two methods being called LQAS in the world today, and that one of them is badly flawed. METHODS This paper reviews fundamental LQAS design(More)
OBJECTIVES Multiple baseline designs (MBDs) have been suggested as alternatives to group-randomized trials (GRT). We reviewed structural features of MBDs and considered their potential effectiveness in public health research. We also reviewed the effect of staggered starts on statistical power. METHODS We reviewed the MBD literature to identify key(More)
This document is disseminated under the sponsorship of the Department of Transportation in the interest of information exchange. The United States Government assumes no liability for its contents or use thereof. The Weather Systems Processor (WSP) modification to existing Airport Surveillance Radars (ASR-9) significantly enhances the functionality of the(More)