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Peroxynitrite (ONOO-), formed by the reaction between nitric oxide (. NO) and superoxide, has been implicated in the etiology of numerous disease processes. Low molecular weight antioxidants, including uric acid, may minimize ONOO---mediated damage to tissues. The tissue-sparing effects of uric acid are typically attributed to oxidant scavenging; however,(More)
Reactive oxygen species play a central role in vascular inflammation and atherogenesis, with enhanced superoxide (O2.-) production contributing significantly to impairment of nitric oxide (.NO)-dependent relaxation of vessels from cholesterol-fed rabbits. We investigated potential sources of O2.- production, which contribute to this loss of(More)
Concentrations of up to 1.5 milliunits/ml xanthine oxidase (XO) (1.1 micrograms/ml) are found circulating in plasma during diverse inflammatory events. The saturable, high affinity binding of extracellular XO to vascular endothelium and the effects of cell binding on both XO catalytic activity and differentiated vascular cell function are reported herein.(More)
Plasma xanthine oxidase (XO) activity was defined as a source of enhanced vascular superoxide (O(2)( *-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) production in both sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and knockout-transgenic SCD mice. There was a significant increase in the plasma XO activity of SCD patients that was similarly reflected in the SCD mouse model.(More)
Recent evidence in vivo indicates that spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) exhibit an increase in oxyradical production in and around microvascular endothelium. This study is aimed to examine whether xanthine oxidase plays a role in overproduction of oxidants and thereby may contribute to hypertensive states as a consequence of the increasing(More)
Elimination of glutamate through enzymatic degradation is an alternative to glutamate receptor blockade in preventing excitotoxic neuronal injury. Glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) is a highly active glutamate degrading enzyme that requires pyruvate as a co-substrate. This study examined the ability of GPT to protect neurons of the hippocampal slice(More)
The myeloperoxidase-derived oxidant hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is thought to contribute to endothelial dysfunction, but the mechanisms underlying this inhibitory effect are unknown. The present study tested the hypothesis that HOCl and L-arginine (L-Arg) react to form novel compounds that adversely affect endothelial function by inhibiting nitric oxide (NO)(More)
Presently, there is no intervention that can be used that preserves brain function in hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. This review covers the interventional strategies that are available to the health care worker at present and suggests a different approach to this frustrating problem. The proposal is to use clinically available interventions and combine(More)