Dale A. Chatfield

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BACKGROUND This study examined whether thirdhand smoke (THS) persists in smokers' homes after they move out and non-smokers move in, and whether new non-smoking residents are exposed to THS in these homes. METHODS The homes of 100 smokers and 50 non-smokers were visited before the residents moved out. Dust, surfaces, air and participants' fingers were(More)
Environmental tobacco smoke is a major contributor to indoor air pollution. Dust and surfaces may remain contaminated long after active smoking has ceased (called 'thirdhand' smoke). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known carcinogenic components of tobacco smoke found in settled house dust (SHD). We investigated whether tobacco smoke is a source(More)
Regular tobacco use in the enclosed environment of a car raises concerns about longer-term contamination of a car's microenvironment with residual secondhand smoke pollutants. This study (a) developed and compared methods to measure residual contamination of cars with secondhand smoke, (b) examined whether cars of smokers and nonsmokers were contaminated by(More)
INTRODUCTION Smoking cigarettes in the enclosed environment of a car leads to the contamination of a car's microenvironment with residual tobacco smoke pollution (TSP). METHODS Surface wipe, air, and dust samples were collected in used cars sold by nonsmokers (n = 40) and smokers (n = 87) and analyzed for nicotine. Primary drivers were interviewed about(More)
To obtain information on the concentration and spectrum of bile acids in human cecal content, samples were obtained from 19 persons who had died an unnatural death from causes such as trauma, homicide, suicide, or drug overdose. Bile acid concentration was measured via an enzymatic assay for 3alpha-hydroxy bile acids; bile acid classes were determined by(More)
BACKGROUND Benzene is a human hematotoxicant and a leukemogen that causes lymphohematopoietic cancers, especially acute myelogenous leukemia. We investigated uptake of benzene in hookah smokers and non-smokers attending hookah social events in naturalistic settings where hookah tobacco was smoked exclusively. METHODS We quantified S-phenylmercapturic acid(More)
Obesity is defined by excessive lipid accumulation. However, the active mechanistic roles that lipids play in its progression are not understood. Accumulation of ceramide, the metabolic hub of sphingolipid metabolism, has been associated with metabolic syndrome and obesity in humans and model systems. Here, we use Drosophila genetic manipulations to cause(More)
OBJECTIVE An elevated concentration in the colon of the primary bile acid chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) or the secondary bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) is known to induce water secretion, causing diarrhea. We hypothesized that of the many fecal bile acids, only CDCA and DCA function as endogenous laxatives; therefore, a decrease in their proportion may be(More)
INTRODUCTION We examined homes of hookah-only smokers and nonsmokers for levels of indoor air nicotine (a marker of secondhand smoke) and indoor surface nicotine (a marker of thirdhand smoke), child uptake of nicotine, the carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), and the toxicant acrolein by analyzing their corresponding metabolites(More)
Secondhand smoke (SHS) causes premature death and disease in children and adults, and the scientific evidence indicates that there is no risk-free level of exposure to SHS. Smoking tobacco in a car can pollute the microenvironment of the car with residual SHS, leaving telltale signs to potential buyers (e.g., odor, used ash tray). This study examined (a)(More)