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Since the 1940's, the prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased in the US, concomitant with a reduction in dental decay. These changes have been attributed in part to the widespread use of systemic and topical fluorides. Various sources of increased systemic fluoride exposure have been investigated. However, little is known regarding fluoride intake from(More)
The prevalence of dental fluorosis has increased since the 1930s in both fluoridated and nonfluoridated United States communities because of increased exposure to systemic fluorides. 1-4 Although the increase in dental fluorosis is of the mild and very mild categories and poses no immediate health problem, more severe levels are of esthetic concern and may(More)
BACKGROUND The hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and treponema pallidum (TP) are blood-borne pathogens. They can lead to nosocomial and occupational infections in health care settings. We aimed to identify the prevalence of and risk factors associated with HBV, HCV, HIV and TP infections among patients with(More)
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