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Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling is controlled by a variety of regulators that target either signaling receptors or activated Smad complexes. Among the negative regulators, Smad7 antagonizes TGF-beta signaling mainly through targeting the signaling receptors, whereas SnoN and c-Ski repress signaling at the transcriptional level through(More)
Dysregulated bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in endothelial cells (ECs) and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are implicated in human genetic disorders. Here, we generated genome-wide maps of Smad1/5 binding sites in ECs and PASMCs. Smad1/5 preferentially bound to the region outside the promoter of known genes, and the binding was(More)
Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling exerts paradoxical roles in pluripotent stem cells (PSCs); it sustains self-renewal of mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), while it induces differentiation in other PSCs, including human ESCs. Here, we revisit the roles of BMP-4 using mouse ESCs (mESCs) in naive and primed states. SMAD1 and SMAD5, which transduce(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β exhibits both pro-apoptotic and anti-apoptotic effects on epithelial cells in a context-dependent manner. The anti-apoptotic function of TGF-β is mediated by several downstream regulatory mechanisms, and has been implicated in the tumor-progressive phenotype of breast cancer cells. We conducted RNA sequencing of mouse(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is crucial in numerous cellular processes, such as proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. TGF-beta signaling is transduced by intracellular Smad proteins that are regulated by the ubiquitin-proteasome system. Smad ubiquitin regulatory factor 2 (Smurf2) prevents TGF-beta and bone morphogenetic(More)
Chromosomal amplification occurs frequently in solid tumors and is associated with poor prognosis. Several reports demonstrated the cooperative effects of oncogenic factors in the same amplicon during cancer development. However, the functional correlation between the factors remains unclear. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta signaling plays important(More)
Cancer cells undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) during invasion and metastasis. Although transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and pro-inflammatory cytokines have been implicated in EMT, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we studied the effects of proinflammatory cytokines derived from the mouse macrophage cell(More)
The Smad2 and Smad3 (Smad2/3) proteins are principally involved in the transmission of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) signaling from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. Many transcription factors have been shown to cooperate with the Smad2/3 proteins in regulating the transcription of target genes, enabling appropriate gene expression by cells.(More)
Stem cells in normal tissues and cancer-initiating cells (CICs) are known to be enriched in side population (SP) cells. However, the factors responsible for the regulation of expression of ABCG2, involved in efflux of dyes, in SP cells have not been fully investigated. Here, we characterized the SP cells within diffuse-type gastric carcinoma, and examined(More)
Arkadia was originally identified as a protein that enhances signalling activity of Nodal and induces mammalian nodes during early embryogenesis; however, the mechanisms by which Arkadia affects transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily signalling have not been determined. Here we show that Arkadia is widely expressed in mammalian tissues, and(More)