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CpG islands are useful markers for genes in organisms containing 5-methylcytosine in their genomes. In addition, CpG islands located in the promoter regions of genes can play important roles in gene silencing during processes such as X-chromosome inactivation, imprinting, and silencing of intragenomic parasites. The generally accepted definition of what(More)
Clusters of CpG dinucleotides in GC rich regions of the genome called "CpG islands" frequently occur in the 5' ends of genes. Methylation of CpG islands plays a role in transcriptional silencing in higher organisms in certain situations. We have established a CpG-island-extraction algorithm, which we previously developed [Takai and Jones, 2002], on a web(More)
The methylation status of binding sites of the insulator protein, CTCF, in the H19 promoter has been suggested as being critical to the regulation of imprinting of the H19/IGF2 locus located in chromosome 11p15. In this study, we have analyzed the methylation of all of seven potential CTCF-binding sites in the human H19 promoter since the methylation status(More)
Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes is generally thought to involve DNA cytosine methylation, covalent modifications of histones, and chromatin compaction. Here, we show that silencing of the three transcription start sites in the bidirectional MLH1 promoter CpG island in cancer cells involves distinct changes in nucleosomal occupancy. Three(More)
Almost 1-2% of the human genome is located within 500 bp of either side of a transcription initiation site, whereas a far larger proportion (approximately 25%) is potentially transcribable by elongating RNA polymerases. This observation raises the question of how the genome is packaged into chromatin to allow start sites to be recognized by the regulatory(More)
The field of epigenetics has made progress by the identification of the small RNA-mediated epigenetic modification. However, little is known about the key proteins. Here, we report that the human PIWI-like family is a candidate protein that is involved in the pathway responsible for chromatin remodeling. The PIWI-like family proteins, expressed as the(More)
BACKGROUND Cytosine methylation of LINE1 (L1) elements, some of which are capable of retrotransposition in human cells, is known to play important roles in transcriptional repression of these retrotransposons. We have previously identified consistent hypomethylation of L1 elements in mouse liver tumors by a genome-wide search technique for aberrant(More)
Small interference RNA (siRNA) is an emerging methodology in reverse genetics. Here we report the development of a new tetracycline-inducible vector-based siRNA system, which uses a tetracycline-responsive derivative of the U6 promoter and the tetracycline repressor for conditional in vivo transcription of short hairpin RNA. This method prevents potential(More)
We have analyzed intergenic distances and searched for the presence of bidirectional genes using the complete sequences and mapping information of human chromosomes 20, 21, and 22, which contain 2,122 known and predicted genes. Intergenic distances between genes with divergent transcripts were distributed in a biphasic manner with a strong peak of 25 kb and(More)