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Bryophyte species growing in areas in which temperatures fall below zero in winter are likely to have tolerance to freezing stress. It is well established in higher plants that freezing tolerance is acquired by exposure to non-freezing low temperatures, accompanied by expression of various genes and increases in levels of the stress hormone abscisic acid(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA)-induced genes are implicated in the development of freezing tolerance during cold acclimation in higher plants, but their roles in lower land plants have not been determined. We examined ABA- and cold-induced changes in freezing tolerance and gene expression in the moss Physcomitrella patens. Slow equilibrium freezing to -4 degrees C of(More)
Plant response to drought and hyperosmosis is mediated by the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), a sesquiterpene compound widely distributed in various embryophyte groups. Exogenous ABA as well as hyperosmosis activates the sucrose nonfermenting 1 (SNF1)-related protein kinase2 (SnRK2), which plays a central role in cellular responses against drought and(More)
Calcium, a universal second messenger, regulates diverse cellular processes in eukaryotes. Ca2+ and Ca2+/calmodulin-regulated protein phosphorylation play a pivotal role in amplifying and diversifying the action of Ca(2+)-binding domain was cloned and characterized from lily. The cDNA clone contains an open reading frame coding for a protein of 520 amino(More)
Wheat cultured cells were used to study the role of Ca2+ in regulating protein kinases during the induction of defense-related genes by fungal elicitor treatments. Manipulation of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations by treatment with calcium ionophore A23187 in the presence of high extracellular Ca2+ resulted in the induction of mRNA expression of WCK-1, a(More)
Overwintering plants develop tolerance to freezing stress through a cold acclimation process by which the cells provoke internal protective mechanisms against freezing. The stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is known to increase freezing tolerance of plant cells, but its role in cold acclimation has not been determined. In this study, we used(More)
Mosses are known to have the ability to develop high degrees of resistance to desiccation and freezing stress at cellular levels. However, underlying cellular mechanisms leading to the development of stress resistance in mosses are not understood. We previously showed that freezing tolerance in protonema cells of the moss Physcomitrella patens was rapidly(More)
In an effort to clarify the responses of a wide range of plant cells to freezing, we examined the responses to freezing of the cells of chilling-sensitive and chilling-resistant tropical and subtropical plants. Among the cells of the plants that we examined, those of African violet ( Saintpaulia grotei Engl.) leaves were most chilling-sensitive, those of(More)
Calcium regulates diverse developmental processes in plants through the action of calmodulin. A cDNA expression library from developing anthers of tobacco was screened with 35S-labeled calmodulin to isolate cDNAs encoding calmodulin-binding proteins. Among several clones isolated, a kinesin-like gene (TCK1) that encodes a calmodulin-binding kinesin-like(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is not a plant-specific compound but one found in organisms across kingdoms from bacteria to animals, suggesting that it is a ubiquitous and versatile substance that can modulate physiological functions of various organisms. Recent studies have shown that plants developed an elegant system for ABA sensing and early signal transduction(More)