Daisuke Sato

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Although autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have a substantial genetic basis, most of the known genetic risk has been traced to rare variants, principally copy number variants (CNVs). To identify common risk variation, the Autism Genome Project (AGP) Consortium genotyped 1558 rigorously defined ASD families for 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)(More)
Recent studies have highlighted the involvement of rare (<1% frequency) copy-number variations and point mutations in the genetic etiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD); these variants particularly affect genes involved in the neuronal synaptic complex. The SHANK gene family consists of three members (SHANK1, SHANK2, and SHANK3), which encode(More)
SHANK genes code for scaffold proteins located at the post-synaptic density of glutamatergic synapses. In neurons, SHANK2 and SHANK3 have a positive effect on the induction and maturation of dendritic spines, whereas SHANK1 induces the enlargement of spine heads. Mutations in SHANK genes have been associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but their(More)
The identification of rare inherited and de novo copy number variations (CNVs) in human subjects has proven a productive approach to highlight risk genes for autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A variety of microarrays are available to detect CNVs, including single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays and comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) arrays. Here, we(More)
The germination stimulants for root parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche produced by sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), maize (Zea mays L.), and pearl millet (Pennisetum typhoideum Rich.) were examined. Characterization of strigolactones in the root exudates from the plants grown hydroponically was conducted by comparing retention times of germination(More)
Autism is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with a complex mode of inheritance. It is one of the most highly heritable of the complex disorders, although the underlying genetic factors remain largely unknown. Here, we report mutations in the X-chromosome PTCHD1 (patched-related) gene in seven families with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in three(More)
The three members of the human neurexin gene family, neurexin 1 (NRXN1), neurexin 2 (NRXN2), and neurexin 3 (NRXN3), encode neuronal adhesion proteins that have important roles in synapse development and function. In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), as well as in other neurodevelopmental conditions, rare exonic copy-number variants and/or point mutations(More)
In the forebrain of 56-day-old rats, histochemical studies revealed that the subcutaneous injection of a psychotomimetic phencyclidine (PCP; 1 and 10 mg/kg) induced a dose-related and dense nuclear c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in the pyriform cortex, layers IV-VI of the neocortex and septum, but a sparse c-Fos immunostaining in the olfactory tubercle and(More)
A simple and rapid analytical method for strigolactones, germination stimulants for the root parasitic weeds witchweed (Striga spp.) and broomrape (Orobanche spp.), has been developed using high-performance liquid chromatography connected to tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The natural strigolactones (strigol, sorgolactone, orobanchol, and alectrol)(More)
The germination stimulants for root parasitic plants Striga and Orobanche produced by cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) were examined in detail. Seeds of cotton were germinated and grown on glass wool wetted with sterile distilled water in sterile filter units. The root exudate was collected daily and extracted with ethyl acetate. Each of these ethyl acetate(More)