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Preoptic magnocellular neurosecretory cells (NSCs) in the brain of rainbow trout show synchronization of periodic Ca(2+) pulses, patterns of which differ between vasotocin (VT) and isotocin (IT) neurons. To provide neuroanatomical bases of the synchronized periodic Ca(2+) pulses and their biological implications, we examined the organization of preoptic VT(More)
Limb-type-specific expression of Tbx5/Tbx4 plays a key role in drawing distinction between a forelimb and a hindlimb. Here, we show insights into specification and determination during commitment of limb-type identity, in particular that median tissues regulate Tbx expressions. By using the RT-PCR technique on chick embryos, the onset of specific Tbx5/Tbx4(More)
We consider systems of differential equations which model complex regulatory networks by a graph structure of dependencies. We show that the concepts of informative nodes (Mochizuki; see [MoSa10]) and determining nodes (Foias and Temam; see [FoTe84]) coincide with the notion of feedback vertex sets from graph theory. As a result we can determine the(More)
The autonomic nervous system, which includes the sympathetic neurons and adrenal medulla, originates from the neural crest. Combining avian blood vessel-specific gene manipulation and mouse genetics, we addressed a long-standing question of how neural crest cells (NCCs) generate sympathetic and medullary lineages during embryogenesis. We found that the(More)
We studied, using avian embryos, mechanisms underlying the three-dimensional assembly of the dorsal aorta, the first-forming embryonic vessel in amniotes. This vessel originates from two distinct cell populations, the splanchnic and somitic mesoderms. We have unveiled a role for Notch signaling in the somitic contribution. Upon activation of Notch(More)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is widely distributed in the vertebrate brains; however, its significance in the brain function is poorly understood. Both GnRH and vasopressin-family hormones are involved in control of reproductive behavior. Anatomical evidence indicated the possible action of GnRH on classical neurosecretory neurons. In the present(More)
Blood vessels in the central nervous system supply a considerable amount of oxygen via intricate vascular networks. We studied how the initial vasculature of the spinal cord is formed in avian (chicken and quail) embryos. Vascular formation in the spinal cord starts by the ingression of intra-neural vascular plexus (INVP) from the peri-neural vascular(More)
In a differential display screening for genes regulated by retinoic acid in the developing chick limb bud, we have isolated a novel gene, termed rigf, retinoic-acid induced growth factor, that encodes a protein belonging to the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family. Rigf transcripts were found in the posterior region of the limb bud in a(More)
We have previously proposed a statistical model of speech F0 contours, which is based on the discrete-time version of the Fu-jisaki model. One advantage of this model is that it allows us to introduce statistical methods to learn the Fujisaki-model parameters from speech F0 contours. This paper proposes several modifications to our previous model and(More)
This paper describes a novel approach to construct a mapping function between a given speaker pair using probability density functions (PDF) of matrix variate. In voice conversion studies, two important functions should be realized: 1) precise model-ing of both the source and target feature spaces, and 2) construction of a proper transform function between(More)