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The pattern of circadian behavioral rhythms is photoperiod-dependent, highlighted by the conservation of a phase relation between the behavioral rhythm and photoperiod. A model of two separate, but mutually coupled, circadian oscillators has been proposed to explain photoperiodic responses of behavioral rhythm in nocturnal rodents: an evening oscillator,(More)
The circadian pacemaker in the hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is a hierarchical multioscillator system in which neuronal networks play crucial roles in expressing coherent rhythms in physiology and behavior. However, our understanding of the neuronal network is still incomplete. Intracellular calcium mediates the input signals, such as(More)
Cryptochrome (Cry) 1 and Cry2 are regarded as critical components for circadian rhythm generation in mammals. Nevertheless, cultured suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of neonatal Cry double deficient (Cry1(-/-)/Cry2(-/-)) mice exhibit circadian rhythms that damp out in several cycles. Here, by combining bioluminescence imaging of Per1-luc and PER2::LUC with(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the primary circadian pacemaker in mammals, is a network structure composed of multiple types of neurons. Here, we report that mice with a Bmal1 deletion specific to arginine vasopressin (AVP)-producing neurons showed marked lengthening in the free-running period and activity time of behavior rhythms. When exposed to an(More)
The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the master circadian clock of mammals, is composed of multiple circadian oscillator neurons. Most of them exhibit significant circadian rhythms in their clock gene expression and spontaneous firing when cultured in dispersed cells, as well as in an organotypic slice. The distribution of periods depends on the SCN tissue(More)
Single-point laser scanning confocal imaging produces signals with high spatial resolution in living organisms. However, photo-induced toxicity, bleaching, and focus drift remain challenges, especially when recording over several days for monitoring circadian rhythms. Bioluminescence imaging is a tool widely used for this purpose, and does not cause(More)
The roles of a local circuit of electrophysiological activity were examined in the expression of circadian rhythms in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the adult mouse. The neuronal activity of cultured SCN was suppressed with tetrodotoxin (TTX), an Na+ channel blocker, and the circadian rhythms in mRNA level were assessed for 13 genes by in situ(More)
—large-scale data processing is very common in many fields such as data-mining, genome mapping, etc. To accelerate such processing, Graphic Accelerator Units (GPU) and FPGAs (Feild-Programmable Gate-Array) are used. However, the large data transfer time between the accelerator and the host computer is a huge performance bottleneck. In this paper, we use a(More)
Nanostructure modification of dental implants has long been sought as a mean to improve osseointegration through enhanced biomimicry of host structures. Several methods have been proposed and demonstrated for creating nanotopographic features; here we described a nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA) coated implant surface and hypothesized that it will hasten(More)
Clock genes Cryptochrome (Cry1) and Cry2 are essential for expression of circadian rhythms in mice under constant darkness (DD). However, circadian rhythms in clock gene Per1 expression or clock protein PER2 are detected in the cultured suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of neonatal Cry1 and Cry2 double deficient (Cry1 (-/-)/Cry2 (-/-)) mice. A lack of circadian(More)