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Microglia are believed to be the only resident immune cells in the CNS, originating from hematopoietic-derived myeloid cells and invading the CNS during development. However, the detailed mechanisms of differentiation and transformation of microglial cells are not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that murine microglial cells show two morphological(More)
AIMS Microglia are the resident immune cells in the central nervous system, originating from haematopoietic-derived myeloid cells. A microglial cell is a double-edged sword, which has both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. Although understanding the role of microglia in pathological conditions has become increasingly important,(More)
OBJECTIVE Familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) is an autosomal dominant form of hereditary amyloidosis. Several studies reported coagulation factor X deficiency and excessive fibrinolysis in immunoglobulin light chain amyloidosis. However, few have investigated coagulation and fibrinolysis in FAP. The objective of this study was to determine abnormalities(More)
Microglia, as well as other tissue-resident macrophages, arise from yolk sac progenitors. Thus, it is likely that the central nervous system environment is critical for the acquisition of a distinct microglial phenotype. Several microRNAs that are enriched in the brain play crucial roles in brain development and may also play a role in the differentiation(More)
Autoimmune diseases are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The gut environment has attracted much attention as an essential component that modulates immune responses, and therefore immune-mediated disorders, such as autoimmune diseases. Growing evidence suggests that microbiota and their metabolites are critical factors for immune(More)
We report two cases of superficial siderosis (SS) of the central nervous system (CNS), which is caused by chronic haemorrhaging into the subarachnoid space with haemosiderin deposition in the superficial portion of the CNS. Patient 1 had fluid collection in the spinal canal, which was reported as the source of the chronic bleeding. Patient 2 was bleeding(More)
SUMMARY Improving the speed of fluorescent X-ray CT imaging using synchrotron radiation has been studied from the points of view of the imaging system and the processing algorithm. Regarding the imaging system, high-speed imaging at 2 seconds per point with a dead time of about 6% has been realized by incorporating an electronic system which operates stably(More)
A 48-year-old woman who had conscious disturbance and abnormal behaviors had been misdiagnosed as having hepatic encephalopathy due to hyperammonemia and portal-systemic shunt, and retrograde transvenous obliteration of the shunt did not improve her symptoms. Thereafter, analyses of plasma amino acids and citrin gene revealed a diagnosis of adult onset type(More)
We report a patient with GNE myopathy with a homozygous mutation (c.1505-4G>A) in GNE gene. The patient recognized progressive weakness of extremities at age 60. Neurological examination at age 65 revealed severe weakness and atrophy in the tibialis anterior muscles and distal predominant moderate weakness in the extremities. Muscle biopsy performed at age(More)
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