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DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark in many eukaryotes. In plants, 24-nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) bound to the effector protein, Argonaute 4 (AGO4), can direct de novo DNA methylation by the methyltransferase DRM2 (refs 2, 4-6). Here we report a new regulator of RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) in Arabidopsis: RDM1.(More)
Cytosine DNA methylation is a stable epigenetic mark that is frequently associated with the silencing of genes and transposable elements (TEs). In Arabidopsis, the establishment of DNA methylation is through the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway. Here, we report the identification and characterization of RDM16, a new factor in the RdDM pathway.(More)
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark established by the combined actions of methylation and demethylation reactions. Plants use a base excision repair pathway for active DNA demethylation. After 5-methylcytosine removal, the Arabidopsis DNA glycosylase/lyase ROS1 incises the DNA backbone and part of the product has a single-nucleotide gap flanked(More)
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mark for transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) in diverse organisms. Recent studies suggest that the methylation status of a number of genes is dynamically regulated by methylation and demethylation. In Arabidopsis, active DNA demethylation is mediated by the ROS1 (repressor of silencing 1) subfamily of(More)
Functional pleiotropy and redundancy are characteristic features of cytokines. To understand the signaling mechanisms of such cytokines, we have proposed a two-chain interleukin (IL) 6 receptor model: IL-6 triggers the association of a ligand-binding chain (IL-6 receptor) and a nonbinding signal transducer (gp130) to form a high-affinity receptor complex,(More)
Active DNA demethylation is an important part of epigenetic regulation in plants and animals. How active DNA demethylation is regulated and its relationship with histone modification patterns are unclear. Here, we report the discovery of IDM1, a regulator of DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis. IDM1 is required for preventing DNA hypermethylation of highly(More)
GNOM is one of the most characterized membrane trafficking regulators in plants, with crucial roles in development. GNOM encodes an ARF-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (ARF-GEF) that activates small GTPases of the ARF (ADP ribosylation factor) class to mediate vesicle budding at endomembranes. The crucial role of GNOM in recycling of PIN auxin(More)
Inorganic arsenic exerts toxic effect on multiple systems including the immune system. We previously showed in a study on mouse thymocytes and B-cell lymphoma A20 cells that arsenite induces cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 by suppressing expression of E2F-target genes. In this study, we furthermore investigated the involvement of retinoblastoma (RB) family(More)
DNA methylation is a conserved epigenetic mark that plays important roles in plant and vertebrate development, genome stability, and gene regulation. Canonical Methyl-CpG-binding domain (MBD) proteins are important interpreters of DNA methylation that recognize methylated CG sites and recruit chromatin remodelers, histone deacetylases, and histone(More)
DNA methylation is important for the silencing of transposons and other repetitive elements in many higher eukaryotes. However, plant and mammalian genomes have evolved to contain repetitive elements near or inside their genes. How these genes are kept from being silenced by DNA methylation is not well understood. A forward genetics screen led to the(More)