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Although there has been much research on soil microbial communities in organic farming, little research has been reported on those in natural farming (no fertilizer use). Soil chemical properties and microbial and nematode communities in naturally (Orchard-N) and conventionally (Orchard-C) farmed apple orchards were compared over 3 years as a case study.(More)
Most of the many Stemphylium species on record as plant pathogens in Japan have been identified by morphology. Using molecular phylogenetic analysis of four loci (rDNA-ITS, EF-1α, GPD, and vmaA-vpsA) combined, we re-examined the taxonomy of 31 Stemphylium strains that had been identified morphologically before or after their deposit in the NIAS Genebank,(More)
Yellow spots on leaves of white lace flower, Ammi majus, were found in Chiba Prefecture, Japan, in October 2006. The symptoms later developed into large brown spots. Brown lesions were also observed on the lower stem, and stem rot followed. A fungus was frequently isolated from the lesions, and the symptoms were reproduced after artificial inoculation. The(More)
Ralstonia solanacearum is the causal organism of bacterial wilt of more than 200 species representing 50 families of plants in tropical, subtropical, and warm temperate regions in the world. Traditionally classified into five races based on differences in host range, R. solanacearum has also been grouped into six biovars on the basis of biochemical(More)
A preemergence damping-off of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) was found in Fukuoka, Japan, in 2009. A fungus repeatedly isolated from the black-rotted seeds reproduced the symptoms in tobacco seeds, and the preemergence damping-off developed after flower and soil inoculation with the fungus. Brown spots and blight developed on leaves of tobacco seedlings(More)