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The effects of tree height on shoot traits may in some cases differ in magnitude and direction from the effects of light. Nevertheless, general patterns of change in shoot traits in relation to variations in height and light have not so far been revealed. A comprehensive analysis of the differences between the effects of height and light on a range of leaf(More)
Holonomic quantum computation is analyzed from geometrical viewpoint. We develop an optimization scheme in which an arbitrary unitary gate is implemented with a small circle in a complex projective space. Exact solutions for the Hadamard, CNOT and 2-qubit discrete Fourier transformation gates are explicitly constructed. Recently quantum computer attracts(More)
The static envelope of a Gabor patch with a moving sinusoidal carrier appears shifted in the direction of the carrier motion (De Valois & De Valois, 1991). This phenomenon is called motion-induced position shift. Although several motion-processing stages, ranging from low- to high-level processes, may contribute to position estimation, it is unknown whether(More)
Visual search is easier after looking at some distractors in advance because previewed distractors are excluded from the search (preview benefit). A dominant explanation for preview benefit is that it occurs because of the inhibition of old objects (visual marking). However, another view claims that preview benefit simply reflects automatic attentional(More)
When certain distractors (old items) appear before others (new items) during an inefficient visual search task, observers exclude the old items from the search if the target always appears as a new item (preview benefit). This effect is said to occur because of inhibitory visual marking (VM) for old objects in addition to attentional capture (AC) to new(More)
We found a new illusion that makes the distance between two small dots appear longer. When two of the four dots comprising a square shape are surrounded by thick circles, the diagonal distance between the two dots (length of the "test" diagonal) subjectively becomes longer than the distance between the dots without surrounding circles (length of the(More)