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Light is a powerful synchronizer of the circadian rhythms, and bright light therapy is known to improve metabolic and hormonal status of circadian rhythm sleep disorders, although its mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we revealed that light induces gene expression in the adrenal gland via the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-sympathetic(More)
RATIONALE The brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is proposed to mediate hypothalamic self-stimulation reward via cholinergic activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, to date there is little direct evidence to support this hypothesis. OBJECTIVES To further study the role of PPTg in hypothalamic self-stimulation reward. (More)
In vivo microdialysis was used to investigate the effect of beta-phenylethylamine on extracellular levels of monoamines and their metabolites in the nucleus accumbens of conscious rats. At all doses tested (1, 10 and 100 microM), infusion of beta-phenylethylamine through the microdialysis probe significantly increased extracellular levels of dopamine in the(More)
The effects of attention and background verbal stimuli on event-related potentials (ERPs) following tone pips were assessed under four conditions: tone pips presented alone when attending and ignoring the tones and tone pips plus verbal stimuli when attending the tones and attending the verbal stimuli. The data were quantified in terms of the N1-P2(More)
Dopamine-derived 1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol, Sal) and related compounds were examined for their selective neurotoxicity to dopamine neurons by injection into the rat striatum. Among salsolinol analogs examined, only N-methyl-(R)- salsolinol (NM(R)Sal) induced behavioral changes very similar to those in Parkinson's(More)
Moclobemide [Ro 11-1163, p-chloro-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)benzamide, AURORIX] is known as an antidepressant and a reversible inhibitor of type A monoamine oxidase. In the present study, a forced swimming test was applied to mice to evaluate behavioral and neurochemical effects of this drug. During forced swimming posture of immobility, a typical behavioral(More)
BACKGROUND Brain synthesis of steroids including sex-steroids is attracting much attention. The endogenous synthesis of corticosteroids in the hippocampus, however, has been doubted because of the inability to detect deoxycorticosterone (DOC) synthase, cytochrome P450(c21). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS The expression of P450(c21) was demonstrated using(More)
Changes in dopamine (DA) release were measured in microdialysis samples taken from the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of rats pretreated with the DA uptake inhibitor, nomifensine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) during self- or forced stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Self-stimulation of the MFB in nomifensine-pretreated rats caused an increased release of DA in(More)
Although prenatal stress has been repeatedly shown to inhibit adult neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of offspring, its effects on embryonic and early postnatal brain development are not well described. Here, using the cell proliferation marker 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine, we examine for the first time the effect of prenatal stress at the embryonic stage on(More)
Using a microdialysis technique, the rat striatum was perfused with NSD-1015, an inhibitor of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, and the amount of L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) and 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) accumulating in dialysate was measured as an index of in vivo activities of tyrosine hydroxylase and tryptophan hydroxylase. NSD-1015(More)