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Light is a powerful synchronizer of the circadian rhythms, and bright light therapy is known to improve metabolic and hormonal status of circadian rhythm sleep disorders, although its mechanism is poorly understood. In the present study, we revealed that light induces gene expression in the adrenal gland via the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN)-sympathetic(More)
RATIONALE The brainstem pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) is proposed to mediate hypothalamic self-stimulation reward via cholinergic activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). However, to date there is little direct evidence to support this hypothesis. OBJECTIVES To further study the role of PPTg in hypothalamic self-stimulation reward. (More)
In vivo microdialysis was used to investigate the effect of beta-phenylethylamine on extracellular levels of monoamines and their metabolites in the nucleus accumbens of conscious rats. At all doses tested (1, 10 and 100 microM), infusion of beta-phenylethylamine through the microdialysis probe significantly increased extracellular levels of dopamine in the(More)
Dopamine-derived 1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (salsolinol, Sal) and related compounds were examined for their selective neurotoxicity to dopamine neurons by injection into the rat striatum. Among salsolinol analogs examined, only N-methyl-(R)- salsolinol (NM(R)Sal) induced behavioral changes very similar to those in Parkinson's(More)
The effects of attention and background verbal stimuli on event-related potentials (ERPs) following tone pips were assessed under four conditions: tone pips presented alone when attending and ignoring the tones and tone pips plus verbal stimuli when attending the tones and attending the verbal stimuli. The data were quantified in terms of the N1-P2(More)
Moclobemide [Ro 11-1163, p-chloro-N-(2-morpholinoethyl)benzamide, AURORIX] is known as an antidepressant and a reversible inhibitor of type A monoamine oxidase. In the present study, a forced swimming test was applied to mice to evaluate behavioral and neurochemical effects of this drug. During forced swimming posture of immobility, a typical behavioral(More)
Changes in dopamine (DA) release were measured in microdialysis samples taken from the nucleus accumbens (NAC) of rats pretreated with the DA uptake inhibitor, nomifensine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) during self- or forced stimulation of the medial forebrain bundle (MFB). Self-stimulation of the MFB in nomifensine-pretreated rats caused an increased release of DA in(More)
Running is known to promote neurogenesis. Besides being exercise, it results in a reward, and both of these factors might contribute to running-induced neurogenesis. However, little attention has been paid to how reward and exercise relate to neurogenesis. The present study is an attempt to determine whether a reward, in the form of intracranial(More)
As a stress model, a forced swimming test was applied to mice; and a typical behavioral change, an immobile posture, was recognized. This affected the brain monoamine levels significantly. The norepinephrine concentration was reduced, while that of its product was increased; and in the case of dopamine, both the amount of the amine and its product were(More)
We have used microdialysis to measure the in vivo hydroxylation level of tyrosine and tryptophan in the medial prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens of conscious rats that were subjected to immobilization. The brain was perfused with an inhibitor of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase, 3-hydroxybenzylhydrazine, and the amount of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine(More)