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In literature, it has been suggested that the CNS anticipates spontaneous change in body position during quiet stance and continuously modulates ankle extensor muscle activity to compensate for the change. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether velocity feedback contributes by modulating ankle extensor activities in an anticipatory fashion,(More)
Rapid sequential taps delivered first to one location and then to another on the skin create the somatosensory illusion that the tapping is occurring at intermediate locations between the actual stimulus sites, as if a small rabbit were hopping along the skin from the first site to the second (called the "cutaneous rabbit"). Previous behavioral studies have(More)
We can adapt movements to a novel dynamic environment (e.g., tool use, microgravity, and perturbation) by acquiring an internal model of the dynamics. Although multiple environments can be learned simultaneously if each environment is experienced with different limb movement kinematics, it is controversial as to whether multiple internal models for a(More)
Bimanual action requires the neural controller (internal model) for each arm to predictively compensate for mechanical interactions resulting from movement of both that arm and its counterpart on the opposite side of the body. Here, we demonstrate that the brain may accomplish this by constructing the internal model with primitives multiplicatively encoding(More)
We investigated how a gradual isometric force-increment and -decrement task modulates the behavior of a soleus stretch reflex. Six healthy subjects performed isometric plantar-flexion torque exertion tasks in which they adjusted the torque level to a target changing triangularly (3 s/cycle; the amplitude is 15% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction(More)
Recent theoretical studies have proposed that the redundant motor system in humans achieves well-organized stereotypical movements by minimizing motor effort cost and motor error. However, it is unclear how this optimization process is implemented in the brain, presumably because conventional schemes have assumed a priori that the brain somehow constructs(More)
A sensorimotor control task often requires an accurate estimation of the timing of the arrival of an external target (e.g., when hitting a pitched ball). Conventional studies of human timing processes have ignored the stochastic features of target timing: e.g., the speed of the pitched ball is not generally constant, but is variable. Interestingly, based on(More)
Although a limb's motion appears to be similar across unimanual and bimanual movements, here we demonstrate partial, but not complete, transfer of learning across these behavioral contexts, hidden learning that remains intact (but invisible) until the original context is again encountered, and the ability to associate two conflicting force fields(More)
We provide the first evidence that stochastic resonance within the human brain can enhance behavioral responses to weak sensory inputs. We asked subjects to adjust handgrip force to a slowly changing, subthreshold gray level signal presented to their right eye. Behavioral responses were optimized by presenting randomly changing gray levels separately to the(More)
Abstract. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cortical activities during two types of Go/NoGo task with different movement instructions (Push-Go and Release-Go) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and event-related potential (ERP) recordings. In the Push-Go condition, ten subjects were instructed either to push a button with their(More)