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In literature, it has been suggested that the CNS anticipates spontaneous change in body position during quiet stance and continuously modulates ankle extensor muscle activity to compensate for the change. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether velocity feedback contributes by modulating ankle extensor activities in an anticipatory fashion,(More)
The amplitude of the H-reflex has been known to have considerable variability even if the intensity of the stimulation is held constant. However, previous studies largely ignored the time-dependent profile of this variability. Recent mathematical analyses have shown that some seemingly irregular biological signals have fractal properties. A fractal time(More)
Series cross-section images of the upper extremity were obtained for four men by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) of elbow flexor muscles [biceps brachii (BIC), brachialis (BRA), brachioradialis (BRD)] and extensor muscles [triceps brachii (TRI)] were measured. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was(More)
Although a limb's motion appears to be similar across unimanual and bimanual movements, here we demonstrate partial, but not complete, transfer of learning across these behavioral contexts, hidden learning that remains intact (but invisible) until the original context is again encountered, and the ability to associate two conflicting force fields(More)
A sensorimotor control task often requires an accurate estimation of the timing of the arrival of an external target (e.g., when hitting a pitched ball). Conventional studies of human timing processes have ignored the stochastic features of target timing: e.g., the speed of the pitched ball is not generally constant, but is variable. Interestingly, based on(More)
The purpose of the present study was to check the reliability of measurements of oxygen uptake (VO2) using a newly developed portable telemetry system. This system (K2) consisted of a face mask, a flow meter, a gas analyser with a transmitter, and a receiver. The total mass for the subject to carry was about 850 g. Three experiments were carried out,(More)
Human quiet standing is often modeled as a single inverted pendulum rotating around the ankle joint, under the assumption that movement around the hip joint is quite small. However, several recent studies have shown that movement around the hip joint can play a significant role in the efficient maintenance of the center of body mass (COM) above the support(More)
Rapid sequential taps delivered first to one location and then to another on the skin create the somatosensory illusion that the tapping is occurring at intermediate locations between the actual stimulus sites, as if a small rabbit were hopping along the skin from the first site to the second (called the "cutaneous rabbit"). Previous behavioral studies have(More)
We investigated how the CNS selects a unique muscle activation pattern under a redundant situation resulting from the existence of bi-articular muscles. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from eight lower limb muscles while 11 subjects were exerting isometric knee and hip joint torque simultaneously (T(k) and T(h), respectively. Extension(More)
Noise can assist neurons in the detection of weak signals via a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). In a previous study [Phys. Lett. A 243, 281 (1998)], we showed that when colored noise with 1/f(beta) spectrum is added to the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuronal model, the optimal noise variance for SR could be minimized with beta approximately 1. In(More)