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In literature, it has been suggested that the CNS anticipates spontaneous change in body position during quiet stance and continuously modulates ankle extensor muscle activity to compensate for the change. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether velocity feedback contributes by modulating ankle extensor activities in an anticipatory fashion,(More)
Although a limb's motion appears to be similar across unimanual and bimanual movements, here we demonstrate partial, but not complete, transfer of learning across these behavioral contexts, hidden learning that remains intact (but invisible) until the original context is again encountered, and the ability to associate two conflicting force fields(More)
Series cross-section images of the upper extremity were obtained for four men by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and anatomical cross-sectional areas (ACSA) of elbow flexor muscles [biceps brachii (BIC), brachialis (BRA), brachioradialis (BRD)] and extensor muscles [triceps brachii (TRI)] were measured. Physiological cross-sectional area (PCSA) was(More)
Rapid sequential taps delivered first to one location and then to another on the skin create the somatosensory illusion that the tapping is occurring at intermediate locations between the actual stimulus sites, as if a small rabbit were hopping along the skin from the first site to the second (called the "cutaneous rabbit"). Previous behavioral studies have(More)
Human quiet standing is often modeled as a single inverted pendulum rotating around the ankle joint, under the assumption that movement around the hip joint is quite small. However, several recent studies have shown that movement around the hip joint can play a significant role in the efficient maintenance of the center of body mass (COM) above the support(More)
We investigated how the CNS selects a unique muscle activation pattern under a redundant situation resulting from the existence of bi-articular muscles. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded from eight lower limb muscles while 11 subjects were exerting isometric knee and hip joint torque simultaneously (T(k) and T(h), respectively. Extension(More)
Noise can assist neurons in the detection of weak signals via a mechanism known as stochastic resonance (SR). In a previous study [Phys. Lett. A 243, 281 (1998)], we showed that when colored noise with 1/f(beta) spectrum is added to the FitzHugh-Nagumo (FHN) neuronal model, the optimal noise variance for SR could be minimized with beta approximately 1. In(More)
We can adapt movements to a novel dynamic environment (e.g., tool use, microgravity, and perturbation) by acquiring an internal model of the dynamics. Although multiple environments can be learned simultaneously if each environment is experienced with different limb movement kinematics, it is controversial as to whether multiple internal models for a(More)
Bimanual action requires the neural controller (internal model) for each arm to predictively compensate for mechanical interactions resulting from movement of both that arm and its counterpart on the opposite side of the body. Here, we demonstrate that the brain may accomplish this by constructing the internal model with primitives multiplicatively encoding(More)
It is now well recognized that muscle activity can be induced even in the paralyzed lower limb muscles of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) by imposing locomotion-like movements on both of their legs. Although the significant role of the afferent input related to hip joint movement and body load has been emphasized considerably in previous studies, the(More)