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Locomotion involves repetitive movements and is often executed unconsciously and automatically. In order to achieve smooth locomotion, the coordination of the rhythms of all physical parts is important. Neurophysiological studies have revealed that basic rhythms are produced in the spinal network called, the central pattern generator (CPG), where some(More)
The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between sympathetic outflow to skeletal muscle and oxygen uptake during dynamic exercise. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) was recorded from the right median nerve microneurographically in eight healthy volunteers during leg cycling at four different intensities in a seated position for a 16-min(More)
Previous gene knockout studies have shown that the orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2) is critically involved in synaptogenesis between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells during development. However, the precise function of GluRdelta2 and whether it is functional in the mature cerebellum remain unclear. To address these issues, we developed an(More)
Dopaminergic systems have been known to be involved in the regulation of locomotor activity and development of psychosis. However, the observations that some Parkinson's disease patients can move effectively under appropriate conditions despite low dopamine levels (eg, kinesia paradoxia) and that several psychotic symptoms are typical antipsychotic(More)
Activity-dependent synaptic modification occurs in both developing and mature animals. For reliable information transfer and storage, however, once established, synapses must be maintained stably. We investigated how chronic blockade of neuronal activity or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors affects(More)
Glutamate transporters are essential for terminating excitatory neurotransmission. Two distinct glutamate transporters, glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and excitatory amino acid transporter 4 (EAAT4), are expressed most abundantly in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. GLAST is expressed in Bergmann glial processes surrounding excitatory(More)
One of the main hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is senile plaques composed of amyloid β (Aβ). We developed a new edible vaccine: rice expressing GFP-Aβ42. In a previous report, we described the production of anti-Aβ antibodies in B6 mice fed Aβ rice mixed with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB). In this report, we investigated whether Aβ rice had(More)
During voluntary limb movements, humans exert anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) to prevent any upcoming equilibrium disturbance that might be provoked by limb movements. Dysfunction in generation or control of APAs is associated with postural deficits in some human patients with cerebellar damage. To examine the role of the cerebellum in APAs, we(More)
Stepping over obstacles to avoid tripping is an essential component in safe and smooth locomotion. Obstacle avoidance during locomotion is completed in several steps during the approach phase toward the obstacle and stepping over the obstacle. The purpose of this study was to investigate gait modification during the approach phase when stepping over(More)
Obstacle avoidance during locomotion is essential for safe, smooth locomotion. Physiological studies regarding muscle synergy have shown that the combination of a small number of basic patterns produces the large part of muscle activities during locomotion and the addition of another pattern explains muscle activities for obstacle avoidance. Furthermore,(More)