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Locomotion involves repetitive movements and is often executed unconsciously and automatically. In order to achieve smooth locomotion, the coordination of the rhythms of all physical parts is important. Neurophysiological studies have related that basic rhythms are produced in the spinal network called, the central pattern generator (CPG), where some neural(More)
Glutamate transporters are essential for terminating excitatory neurotransmission. Two distinct glutamate transporters, glutamate-aspartate transporter (GLAST) and excitatory amino acid transporter 4 (EAAT4), are expressed most abundantly in the molecular layer of the cerebellar cortex. GLAST is expressed in Bergmann glial processes surrounding excitatory(More)
Previous gene knockout studies have shown that the orphan glutamate receptor delta2 (GluRdelta2) is critically involved in synaptogenesis between parallel fibers and Purkinje cells during development. However, the precise function of GluRdelta2 and whether it is functional in the mature cerebellum remain unclear. To address these issues, we developed an(More)
Activity-dependent synaptic modification occurs in both developing and mature animals. For reliable information transfer and storage, however, once established, synapses must be maintained stably. We investigated how chronic blockade of neuronal activity or alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors affects(More)
Obstacle avoidance during locomotion is essential for safe, smooth locomotion. Physiological studies regarding muscle synergy have shown that the combination of a small number of basic patterns produces the large part of muscle activities during locomotion and the addition of another pattern explains muscle activities for obstacle avoidance. Furthermore,(More)
The cerebellum plays a fundamental, but as yet poorly understood, role in the control of locomotion. Recently, mice with gene mutations or knockouts have been used to investigate various aspects of cerebellar function with regard to locomotion. Although many of the mutant mice exhibit severe gait ataxia, kinematic analyses of limb movements have been(More)
Stepping over obstacles to avoid tripping is an essential component in safe and smooth locomotion. Obstacle avoidance during locomotion is completed in several steps during the approach phase toward the obstacle and stepping over the obstacle. The purpose of this study was to investigate gait modification during the approach phase when stepping over(More)
In this study, we generated mice lacking the gene for G-substrate, a specific substrate for cGMP-dependent protein kinase uniquely located in cerebellar Purkinje cells, and explored their specific functional deficits. G-substrate-deficient Purkinje cells in slices obtained at postnatal weeks (PWs) 10-15 maintained electrophysiological properties essentially(More)
Walking smoothly and safely often involves stepping over an obstacle. The purpose of this study was to examine forelimb movements and toe trajectories in stepping over an obstacle during overground locomotion in rats. We performed a kinematic analysis of forelimb movements and measured electromyographic (EMG) activities in the biceps and triceps brachii of(More)
Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO)-mediated control of the alternative splicing of the chloride channel 1 (CLCN1) gene is a promising treatment for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) because the abnormal splicing of this gene causes myotonia in patients with DM1. In this study, we optimised a PMO sequence to correct Clcn1 alternative splicing(More)